Book: Elements of Machine Work

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TEXT-BOOK OF THE ELEMENTS OF MACHINE WORK

Advertising Card

By Robert Henry Smith

Massachusetts Institute of Technology


Text-Book of the Principles of Machine Work

333 pp., 5 x 8, 342 Illustrations.

Text-Book of Advanced Machine Work

575 pp., 5x8, 609 Illustrations.


INDUSTRIAL EDUCATION BOOK COMPANY

BOSTON, U. S. A.

Title page

TEXT-BOOK OF THE ELEMENTS

OF

MACHINE WORK


PREPARED FOR

STUDENTS IN TECHNICAL, MANUAL TRAINING,

AND TRADE SCHOOLS, AND FOR THE

APPRENTICE IN THE SHOP


LAYING OUT WORK, CHIPPING, FILING, SCRAPING, HARDENING AND TEMPERING CARBON AND HIGHSPEED STEELS, TESTING HARDNESS, PIPE FITTING, SOLDERING, BRAZING, LACING BELTS, ALINING SHAFTING, AND INSTALLING MACHINES


BY


ROBERT H. SMITH


MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY


204 Illustrations



INDUSTRIAL EDUCATION BOOK COMPANY

BOSTON, U.S.A.



Copyright page

Copyright, 1910,

BY

ROBERT H. SMITH.


Stanhope PRESS

P. H. GILSON COMPANY BOSTON. U.S.A.

Preface

In teaching mathematics, physics, chemistry, etc., textbooks of classified information are available and are a required and necessary part of class-room and laboratory courses; thus the student advances rapidly and systematically, and the instructor is enabled to accomplish effective work.

In this the Age of Machinery, students, apprentices, and machine operators are handicapped by lack of text-books of classified information of the art and science of machine construction.

The aim of these books, Elements of Machine Work, Principles of Machine Work, and Advanced Machine Work is to give the beginner the advantages of text-books as in the older subjects, that he may acquire the fundamental as well as advanced principles in a logical, systematic, and progressive manner and in the shortest time possible.

Machines, mechanisms, and tools are illustrated graphically by means of original perspective and mechanical drawings, and briefly and systematically described by condensed tables. Operations in machining, standard and typical problems in machine construction are given in condensed schedules which name the material, operations, machines, speeds, feeds, jigs, fixtures, and tools. Calculations are supplied by condensed rules and formulas. Facts and principles are supplied which a student or apprentice in school or shop must rediscover or obtain from instructor or foreman. As the subject is large and varied, it is impossible for instructor or foreman to do justice to it; consequently, the task is a difficult one and the beginner's progress extremely slow.

These books tell how to do things, with that theory which connects principles and practice, and no person can build or superintend the construction of machinery without consciously or unconsciously understanding these problems and applying these principles.

To the manufacturers, teachers, associates, and other friends who have kindly assisted with information, help, and encouragement, I take this opportunity of expressing my indebtedness and appreciation.

R. H. S.

May, 1910.

Contents

Chapter I

History and Origin of Machine Tools. — The hammer, chisel, file, and hand drill (primitive tools) — Evolution of the lathe — Slide rest; its application to the engine lathe and to other machine tools
Equipment for Teaching and Manufacturing. — Laboratories for teaching machine construction — Manufacturing plants or machine shops for the construction of machines in lots — Tool and stock rooms
Materials Used for Machine Construction. — Ores of iron: cast iron, wrought iron, machine steels (vanadium, nickel, and chrome), carbon and high-speed steels — Percentage of carbon in steel for various tools — Hand and drop forgings — Steel and malleable-iron castings — Alloys of copper — Soft metals
Reading Drawings. — Perspective, isometric, orthographic, or mechanical — Working drawings, assembly and detail — Tables of abbreviations on drawings for mformation and operation — Dimensions on drawings — Schedule-of-operations drawings — Scale — Blue prints — Pencil sketches — Order of reading working drawings — Dimension-limit system

Chapter II

Standards of Linear Measurements. — English, metric — The British Imperial yard — Origin of the yard and inch — Table of English Linear Measure — The meter — Origin of the meter — Table of Metric Linear Measure
Measuring, Laying Out and Operating Tools, and Methods of Use. — Laying out work — Two-foot rule — Standard steel rules — Outside, inside, and keyhole calipers — Dividers — Trammels — Standard steel straight edge — Center square — Key seating rule — Scratch and depth gage — Center punch — Scriber — Leveling plate — Bench and universal surface gages — Automatic, adjustable center punch — Templets for producing duplicate parts — Monkey, solid, tool-post, socket, and spanner wrenches — Screw-driver, plmnb bob, spirit level, pliers, and wire cutters

Chapter III

Chipping: Hand and Power. — The guide principle in hand tools — Types of chipping hammers — Cold chisels — Angles of cutting edges — Roughing and finishing cuts — How to hold the work — Correct position for chipping — Chipping plane surfaces, with schedule of operations — Chipping curved surfaces — Pneumatic chipping
Tool-Grinding. — Wet tool grinder — Emery wheels — Emery wheel speeds — Methods of truing emery wheels — Hardened wheel aud roU dressers — Grindstone aud truing device — Grinding a cold chisel

Chapter IV

Files. — General description — Shape, cut, single cut, double cut, rasps, Swiss pattern files — Uses and names of files — Safe edge — Quadrangular, triangular, and circular sections — Special files: rifflers, files for wood, brass and babbitt or lead — Handles and file cleaners
Hand and Machine Filing. — Oil in filing — Pinning — Care of files — Height of work — Correct position for filing — Try squares — Testing flatness of surfaces — Testing squareness of surfaces — How to lay out work for filing — Filing and squaring flat smfaces, with schedule of operations — Filing curved surfaces — Draw-filing — Filing machine
How Files are Made. — Hand and machine-cut files.

Chapter V

Scrapers, Scraping and Standard Surface Plates. — Flat scraper — To sharpen flat scraper — Standard surface plate — "Marking" to indicate the surface to be scraped by means of spots on work — Scraping plane (flat) surfaces, with schedule of operations — Standard scraped straight edge — Scraping V-ways of machines — Originating standards — To scrape without a standard — "Bedding " to mark work for scraping or filing, as pillow blocks, etc. — Scraping bronze or babbitt bearings
Polishing. — Abrasives for polishing and grinding: emery, corundum, alundum, carborundum, rottenstone, crocus, etc. — Number and grade of emery — Polishing — Order of applying different grades of emery cloth — Emery paper and grain emery — Polishing flat surfaces — Polishing curved surfaces

Chapter VI

Annealing, Hardening, and Tempering Carbon Steel. — Water annealing, commercial annealing — Annealing cast iron, copper, bronze, and brass — Hardening — File test for hardness — Tempering — Color, thermometer, and file test — Forge fire, muffle gas furnaces, lead furnace, electric furnace — Cooling baths: brine, water, oil, mercury — Cleansing baths — ^Annealing, hardening, and tempering unfinished tools — Hardening and tempering cold chisels and lathe tools — Hardening and tempering springs — Oil-tempering furnace — Hardening and tempering finished tools, such as tap, mandrel, and milling cutter — To harden and not temper — Tempering table with degrees of heat to which colors correspond
High-Speed Steel. — Heating, forging, hardening, and tempering high-speed lathe tools — Hardening and tempering high-speed steel cutters — Heating in barium chloride and tempering in oil
Case-Hardening. — To case-harden with cyanide of potassium — Case-hardening with and without colors, box and bone process — Case-hardening with carbonizing gas — Annealing and rehardening case-hardened work
Straightening Hardened and Tempered Tools.
Testing Hardness with Scleroscope. — Principle of the scleroscope and scale of hardness

Chapter VII

Cutting off Stock, Hand and Machine Methods. — Hand saws and cutting-off machines — Hand hack saw and method of use — Power hack saw and method of use — Power rotary cutting-off machine and method of operating — Cold saw cutting-off machine and its use

Chapter VIII

Pipe and Pipe Fittings. — Steel and wrought-iron pipe — Galvanized pipe and fittings — Lead and tin-lined pipe and fittings — Electric conduits or tubes — Right and left pipe fittings — Lubricants for cutting ofif and threading pipe — Pipe-joint cement — Brass, copper, and bronze pipe and tubes — Plumbers' sizes or fine thread pipes and fittings — Seamless tubing — Nickelplated tubes — Cast-iron pipe — Drain pipe — Lead or blocktin pipe — Aluminium pipe and fittings — Packings — Steel and nickel tubes — Tables of pipe measurements — Colors to Identify pipe lines — Charts of pipe fittings, valves, cocks, gas, railings, and driven well fittings, with tables of names and uses
Pipe Tools. — Charts of pipe tools for use on iron pipe, plumbers' pipe, nickel-plated tubing, with tables of names
Hand and Machine Methods of Piping. — Hand method of threading — Cutting off and making up pipe joints, with schedule of operations — Pipe fitting, with schedule of operations — Making both right and left connections — Threading pipe with hand threading machine — Threading large pipe with power threading machine — Making up large pipe joint by power

Chapter IX

Straightening and Bending. — Straightening flat or round stock on anvil — Straightening shaft in lathe and in straightening press
Peening and Riveting. — Straightening or stretching metal by peening. — Riveting flush joints and crankshaft pin
Hand Drilling. — Breast and ratchet drills, and method of use

Chapter X

Soldering. — Soft solder — Fluxes for soldering — Soldering-iron — Problem in soft soldering, with schedule of operations
Brazing. — Brazing or hard solder (spelter) — Fluxes for brazing — Brazing with hand blow-pipe, with schedule of operations — Brazing with large stationary blow-pipe — Brazing cast iron, with schedule of operations — Brazing small work with jewelers' blow-pipe 148
Babbitting. — Babbitting bearings, with schedule of operations

Chapter XI

Power Transmission. — Shafting, pulleys, belts, gears — Power for driving machine tools — Shafting — Formulas for calculating speeds of shafts — Pulleys: solid and split, crown and straight face — Formulas for calculating diameters of pulleys — Belts, etc. — Belting — Open belts and cross belts — Formulas for calculating lengths of belts — To aline pulleys for quarterturn belts — Joining ends of belts — Lacing belts, with schedule of operations — Belt clamps — Coil wire lacing — Belt hooks and metal fastening — Cementing or gluing endless belts — Method of using speed indicator, with schedule of operations — Gear transmission — Pair and train of gears — To calculate speed of gears — Balancing pulleys
Alining and Leveling Shafting and Installing Machines. — Erection of hangers on main line shaft, line and level method, schedule of operations — Transit method and schedule of operations — To erect countershaft or shaft parallel to the main line — Installing machine tools

Chapter XII

Tables and Other Data Used in Machine Work. — Etching names and figures on hardened steel — Bluing steel and iron — Browning steel and iron — Repairing rust holes and splits in pipes — Case-hardening cast iron — Table of inches with equivalents in millimeters — Table of millimeters with equivalents in inches — Table of freezing, melting, and boiling temperatures of metals and common substances — Cleaning castings — Tumbling barrels — Sand blast — Pickling

Index

Book: Elements of Machine Work: Manuscript (unedited)