# Book: Elements of Machine Work: Manuscript (unedited)

Fig. 1. — Perspectite Drawing OP Brick.

Fig. 2. — Isometric Drawing OP Brick.

39. Perspective drawing is the method of representing an object as it appears to the eye, as the brick in Fig. 1. This method is used for rough sketches.

DRAWINGS.

9

40. Isometric drawing is a method of showing an object pictorially and still have the lines show the true length, breadth, and thickness, as the brick in Fig. 2.

The lines which represent length and breadth make angles of 30^ with the horizontal, and for thickness are vertical (90°). This method is used in construction work for simple objects. Paper ruled for isometric drawings is obtainable.

41. Mechanical drawing or orthographic projection. — Any drawing made with instruments is a mechanical drawing. Established, practice, however, has restricted the term to drawings made up of geometric views.

Fig. 3 is a mechanical drawing of the brick in Figs. 1 and 2. Two views at least are necessary — the top view or plan,

TOP VIEW

OR

PLAN

1

END VIEW

1 1 1

SIDE VIEW

OH ELEVATION

Fig. 3. — Mechanical Drawing op a Brick.

obtained by looking vertically down upon the brick; and the other, the side view or elevation, obtained by looking horizontally at the brick; a third or end view is sometimes needed.

42. Working drawii^s (assembly and detail) are mechanical drawings supplied with dimensions and other information that would be necessary in order to construct the piece.

Assembly drawings show the relation of the various parts when in place. If any dimensions are given, they are usually those necessary in assembling.

Detail drawings show each part separately. They are supplied with complete dimensions, have stated the material, number of pieces required, kinds of operations to be performed, and all other information necessary to construct the work.

10

ELEMENTS OF MACHINE WORK.

43. Lines used on drawings. — See Fig. 4 for explanation,

FULL LINE

FOR VISIBLE PARTS

DOTTED OR DASH LINE

FOR INVISIBLE PARTS AND TO CONNECT 0IMENSION4.1NES WITH VIEWS

CENTER LINE

DIMENSION LINE

Fig. 4.

Full lines and dotted lines. — Full lines are used to show visible parts of the object and dotted lines the invisible parts, as in Fig. 5.

II 1 1 1 ' 1

Fig. 5. — Hollow Cylinders, Showing Use of Full Line and Dotted Line.

SECTION ON LINE A B

Fig. 6. — Sleeve Fitted to Hollow Cylinder, Showing Use of Section Lining.

Sections are used to show the shape of a piece or to reveal hidden parts. They show the piece as if it were cut or sawed open. The position of a section is represented by a center line usually marked with two letters, and the section is marked with the corresponding letters as in Fig. 6.

DRAWINGS.

11

Sections and partial sections are often shown upon the piece itself.

Section lining ("Cross hatching"), — Parallel, equidistant lines, usually inclined at an angle of fiO^or 45°, represent cut surfaces or sections.

When two or more pieces are in contact and represented by a cut surface or section, it is customary to draw the section lines in different directions to show more clearly the separation between the parts, as in Fig. 6, a sleeve fitted into a hollow cylinder.

o Represent MATt:iuAl« of Constructiok.

Section lining to show different materials of construction is

varied. The system in Fig. 7 is much used.

It is the practice of some to section all materials alike and name the materials in print on the drawing.

E Shaft, Showing Diuensions, Lines, i

D CONTBrmoNB.

44. Breaks on drawings. — To save space. Fig. 8, parts are sometimes shown shortened, a break indicating that a portion

12

ELEMENTS OF MACHINE WORK.

is omitted, while the dimension figures show the true length. Breaks are sometimes sectioned to indicate the material and are also sometimes omitted.

A break in wood is usually represented as in Fig. 9.

Fia. 9. — Break in Wood.

45. Center lines on drawings indicate the starting point for all laying out as in Fig. 8.

Extension lines connect dimension lines with views as in Fig. 8.

TABLE OF ABBREVIATIONS OF INFORMATION ON

DRAWINGS.

Abbreviations.

Namrts.

Abbreviations.

Names.

/

Feet.

Inches.

Millimeter.

Meter.

Diameter.

R

H

L

MM

Wrt. Iron or W. I. Cst. Iron or C. I.. . M. S

Wrought Iron. Cast Iron.

M

Dia. or D

Machine steel.

C. S

Carbon steel.

Th. orthd

High-speed steel.

TABLE OF ABBREVIATIONS OF OPERATIONS ON DRAWINGS.

Tap. . . Ream. Bore. . Face. . Scrape

File. . . Grind. Black.

To tap hole.

To ream hole.

To bore hole.

To face surface.

To scrape surface.

To file surface.

To grind.

To be left as forged.

Tool finish

^ on line of surr face, Fig. 8 . . .

Running fit

Driving fit

Forcing fit

Shrinking fit ,

Taper fit, etc ,

To be left as machined.

Surface to be finished.

Allowance for fits signified by name or number.

DRAWINGS. 13

46. Dimensions on drawings should be so placed and selected as to limit operations, and should read from the bottom or right side of the sheet, Fig. 8. The short dimensions are arranged nearest the object and the over-all dimension at the outside. All dimensions up to and including twenty-four inches are given in inches. All above are given in feet and inches, with the exception of diameters, as of pulleys, flywheels, gear, etc., which run to one hundred and forty-four inches in inches.

When the dimensions are in the Metric system, they are given in millimeters, except very large sizes, which are given in meters and millimeters.

Horizontal dimensions. — A method of dimensioning drawings where all dimensions read from left to right, Fig. 12.

47. A schedule-of-operations drawing gives, besides usual amount of information, the number and order of operations and also special fixtures, jigs, and tools. A small circle (O) before the number of each operation may be used to indicate that the piece is to be inspected for accuracy before the next operation.

48. Scale of drawing. — Drawings are made to various scales as full, half (6" = 1'), or quarter size (3" = 1'), etc., according to size of object and available space. The dimensions are always full size and must be adhered to in making the work. The drawing should never be measured to find a dimension.

49. Blue prints are made by placing chemically prepared paper under a transparent cloth or paper tracing of the original drawing (or under the original drawing itself, if it be made on special paper) in a suitable frame, and exposing the whole to the sunlight, after which the sensitized paper is washed in a tank of clean water and hung up to dry. The lines on the original drawing become white lines on blue paper, " blue print." Blue-printing machines are obtainable.

50. Pencil sketches. — To avoid delay and save expense, freehand pencil sketches. Figs. 10, 11, are often used when one

ELEMENTS OF MACHINE WORK.

piece is required. They are also used between the designer and draughtsman and by the draughtsman when making new parts or alterations on machines.

fie-i^k B»lf:

c

tZJiQ

— Freehand Skei

p RoroH Bolt.

tf^

61. Order of reading working drawings. — First, form a mental picture of assembled parts, then the details.

Second, observe dimensions, checking sum of small dimensions with over-all dimensions.

Third, note material and number of each part to be made.

Fourth, read all abbreviations and data given.

DRAWINGS.

15

DIMENSION-LIMIT SYSTEM.

52. Drawings giving dimension limits and indicating the measuring tools are given for accurate work, the systems varying.

Certain dimensions may be titVtt" or yxnyir" under or over nominal size, and if indicated on the drawing it will save the time used in finishing work with undue accuracy. The extra time taken to make the drawings is saved many times in machining the work.

T — ^

1.378" 1.377"

1

FORCINQ FIT

RUNNING FIT

SHAFT— MACHINE STEEL

Fig. 12. — Drawing Showing Dimension-Limit System.

63. A single dimension indicated by a whole number, fraction, or mixed number as 64", Fig. 12, means that rule and caliper are sufficiently accurate to measure the parts.

54. Double dimensions in decimal form, placed one above the other as {Jyy// Fig. 12, indicate the Umit allowed for a required size, and that micrometer, vernier, or limit gage should be used.

66. A dimension allowing no limit is indicated by a single decimal as 8.000" and means that the greatest possible accuracy must be obtained with the measuring instruments at hand.

Instead of double dimensions, limits are sometimes indicated by plus and minus signs after the nominal dimensions, as 4.125" + or - .001".

CHAPTER II.

STANDARDS OF LINEAR MEASUREMENTS. MEASURING,

LAYING OUT AND OPERATING TOOLS, AND

METHODS OF USE.

STANDARDS OF LINEAR MEASUREMENTS.

56. The English system expressed in inches, feet, yards, etc. (see Table), is used throughout English-speaking countries. It is based on the British Imperial yard, the distance between two fine lines on gold plugs inserted in a bronze bar and standard at 62° F. The original bar is kept in London, England, with copies in the United States (Washington) and other countries. The inch, the thirty-sixth part of a yard, is supposed to have been determined from three grains of barley placed end to end. It was formerly divided into twelve parts called lines.

Table op English Linear Measure. Inches.

12

1 foot.

36

3

1 yard

72

6

2

1 fathom.

198

16.5

5.5

2.75- 1

perch or rod.

7920 =

660

220

110

- 40

- 1 furlong.

63360 =

5280

1760

880

-320

-8-1 mile.

3 miles

- 1 league.

57, The Metric system, expressed in millimeters, centimeters, decimeters, meters, etc. (see Table), is used in foreign countries and also in the United States on watch tools and machinery going abroad. It is based on the meter, the distance between two fine lines on a bar of platiniridium and standard at the melting point of ice (0° C). The original is kept at the International Bureau of Weights and Measures at

16

f

LAYING OUT WORK. 17

Sevres, France, with copies in the United States (Washington) and other countries. The meter (39.37 inches) is nearly the ten-millionth part of the distance from the equator to the North Pole, as originally derived by measurement of an arc of a meridian. See Tables, pp. 173-177.

Table of Metric Linear Measure.

10 millimeters (mm.) = 1 centimeter cm.

10 centimeters = 1 decimeter dm.

10 decimeters = 1 meter m.

10 meters = 1 decameter Dm.

10 decameters = 1 hectometer Hm.

10 hectometers = 1 kilometer. : Km.

MEASURING, LAYING OUT, AND OPERATING TOOLS

AND METHODS OF USE.

58. Laying out work. — The principles involved in laying out work for chipping, filing, or machining are very similar to those involved in mechanical drawing, but the resulting lay-out must be accurate.

The introduction of jigs, templets, and special fixtures for producing duplicate work, especially in making small machine parts, renders laying out unnecessary after first tool or machine is made. The necessity of laying out some classes of work carefully, accurately, and with fine lines cannot be too strongly emphasized, for unless the lines are correcft accurate results cannot be obtained.

The points of center punch, scriber or scratch awl, dividers, scratch gage, and surface gage, should be ground sharp.

59. Chalk is used on rough surfaces as castings, etc., rubbed on the surface and then smoothed down with the fingers, making a sufficient coat on which a line may be made visible. For large surfaces mix powdered chalk or whiting with water or alcohol, or white lead with turpentine, and apply with a brush.

60. Copper sulphate. — A marking solution, composed of one ounce of copper sulphate, four ounces of water, and about one teaspoonful of nitric acid, when applied to iron or steel that

w

1

18

ELEMENTS OF MACHINE WORK.

is clean, will give a bright copper surface, and will show lines drawn by scriber, dividers, surface gage, etc., distinctly. Snrall pieces of steel are often heated to a blue for a similar purpose.

61. The student, to work accurately and expeditiously, should be supplied with a variety of small tools of the best quality.

62. The two-foot rule, Fig. 13, is madeof boxwood, trimmed with brass and consists of four parts hinged together, graduated into inches and subdivided into halves, quarters,

Fig. 13. — Two-Foot Rule.

eighths, tenths, twelfths, sixteenths, and scales. It is adapted to comparatively rough work only.

63. Standard steel rules are obtainable from 1 to 48 inches in length, graduated into various subdivisions of an inch, tempered or untempered. In Fig. 14, rule (No. 4) is grad

M«IMi|iinMMMHM'MM|'MMM|M'MM|Lli

^n T I I I I

!

91 «*"=!

B

M I I i I 1 I I I I I I I Fe

Fig. 14. — Three-Inch Standard Steel Rule No. 4, Full Size.

Fig. 15. — Three-Inch Standard Steel Rule, No. 7, Full Size.

uated on one side as shown; on the other, into 32ds and 64ths. The ends are graduated as at A and B for measuring recesses, etc. Many prefer the rule in Fig. 15 (No. 7) with one edge

CALIPERS.

19

graduated into lOOths and the other edges into 64ths, 32ds, and 16ths.

Steel rules are accurate and, when skilfully used, are second only to micrometer and vernier calipers.

64, Calipers, — Work is measured with calipers, micrometer or vernier, and standard or limit gages, depending on the accuracy required and where the rule alone would be impracticable.

Accurate setting and measuring with calipers require a delicate touch and good judgment. Calipers may be set by a steel rule to produce results within .001" or less.

65. Outside calipers are used in measuring or testing outside work. Fig. 16.

Inside calipers are used in measuring or testing inside work. Fig. 17.

WOftK

Fig. 16. — Outside Spring Calipers.

Fig. 17. — Inside Spring Calipers.

WORK

Fig. 18. — Key Hole Calipers.

Fig. 19. — Spring Dividers.

66. Keyhole calipers are used to measure from hole to edge, as in Fig. 18, the throw of a cam, the thickness of wall of tube, to test thickness of walls of hole in round piece to find if hole is central, etc.

67. Dividers are used to describe circles on metals as in Fig. 19 and for similar work. For large circles, spacing, etc., use extension dividers or trammels.

Attention, — Some calipers and dividers are provided with a spring nut that slides along scre"w for quick adjustment and engages screw for fine adjustment.

20

ELEMENTS OF MACHINE WORK

Friction joint calipers and dividers may be set approximately by opening or closing with the hand. The accurate adjustment is obtained by lightly rapping one leg on a hard substance.

68. Standard steel straight edge, Fig. 20, has one beveled edge A, preferably tempered and accurately finished by grinding. It is used for very fine work where a straight edge (180° angle) is required.

/I

Fig. 20. — Standard Steel Straight Edge.

69. Center square. — Fig. 21 consists of head A and blade Bj and is used to draw radial lines to locate on work C END OF center D,

70. Combination center square, miter, pro— I tractor, etc. — Fig. 22 — ' consists of sliding head E clamped to blade F by nut G, It maybe used to draw a radial line on

Fig. 21. — Locating Center op Cylinder. _ i tt i vjrr r^,y

work /r along XL. Other heads such as square, miter, protractor, and level are furnished.

CENTER

SQUARE

I

'Ar"'>"M"'"i^[M

J.Ll.l.l...(.I.I.I.I...I...I.I.I.I.L..I...I^.I...I,

231

iiliUkJ

X KEY SEATIMO RULE A / *_ ^ sj_

Ti.i.t.l.t.i.iJ.i.i.i.l.t.i.»,l.i.i.i.Li.i~

D'

SHAFT B

Fig. 22. — Drawing Diametrical Line with Fig. 23. — Drawing Lines Combination Square. for EIey Seat.

71. Key seating rule. — A, Fig. 23, is used to obtain parallel lines on shafts or in holes for key ways and mortises. The rule is placed on shaft B and a scriber used to draw line along

MARKING AND TESTING GAGES.

21

edge C. CSrcle D may be drawn as a guide for lines and for a drill when hole is desired.

72. To mark line around shaft, coat with sulphate of oepper and pass ateel tape or a strip of stiff paper around shaft. Hold tight and mark line at edge of tape with scriber.

73. Scratch gages, Fig. 24, are used for drawing parallel lines. Upon beam A head B is clamped by screw C, and marker Z> by screw E. To set the gage, clamp head 5 at required distance from marker D, using graduations on beam or on a ateel rule.

Place it on work as at F with head pressed against side of work and push it in direction of arrow with marker inclined as at D', producing line GH.

— Testing Depth □

74. Depth gage, Fig. 25, consists of beam A, rule B, and clamp C. The rule may be used at end of beam as at D when measuring depths close to shoulder. Depth of hole E in work F is li". Micrometer depth gages are obtainable.

22

ELEMENTS OF MACHINE WORK.

u UK

Fig. 26. — Center

Punch tor

Indenting

Centers.

75. Center punch, Fig. 26, is used to produce, when struck with a hammer, an indentation in metal. It should be held perpendicularly to work or it will slip when struck. Point A should be hardened, tempered, and ground to an angle of 60®. End jB should also be reduced.

J

Fig. 27. — Scriber for Drawing Lines.

76. A forged scriber (scratch awl), A 5, Fig. 27, is used to mark lines upon work when guided by edge of blade of square or straight edge.

77. Bench surface gage and leveling plate,

Fig. 28. — To use gage A to draw line on work B

parallel to leveling plate C Coat surface with

chalk or copper sulphate. Set gage at A\

place rule T) against blade of square E, loosen screw F and

adjust scriber G approximately to desired line on rule; set

WORK

LEVEUNO PLATE C

Fig. 28. — Lining out Work with Surface Gage.

point of scriber accurately by means of adjusting screw H, then lock by screw ¥\ press work to leveUng plate while

SUBFACE GAGE. 23

gage A is grasped with right hand to draw scriber across work, producing line KL.

78. Universal surface gage, Fig. 29, is used for laying out work, leveling, and lining castings, etc. Base A is grooved

FlO, 29. — LlNtNO OCT EkiCItNTBIC StBAF with UmVEBSAt. SUBFACB Oaqb.

for use on circular work. Spindle B carries double clamp C that holds scriber D. Nut E clamps acriber at any height or angle. Nut F clamps spindle at any angle. Lever J and nut K serve for fine adjustments.

The gage is used for leveling at and 0', the strap bolted to angle plate H. To set scriber to ^ven height adjust approximately, then accurately by lever J and nut K. To draw line parallel to edge of leveling plate, or to align work on planer, push down pins L, U. For small work insert scriber Din bole M. For depth gage pass scriber through slot N.

79. Automatic adjustable center piinch, A, Fig, 30, is used to produce marks of uniform size, which is important when accuracy is desired. Bring tool to desired location as at circle

24

ELEMENTS OF MACHINE WORK.

on jig Bj and press knurled handle downward to produce the indentation. The depth of indentation can be adjusted by screw C, Use magnifying glass D for accurate work. Point E is removable for grinding.

Fig. 30. — Laying Out a Jig.

80. The monkey wrench, A, Fig. 31, consists of bar S, handle C, and jaws D and E. Jaw E is moved by nurled

MONKEY WRENCH

A

SOLID JAW

SLIO-I '

INO 1

B

rci^

^

NurfH

.>"J'

PtUOW BLOCK

Y\Q. 31 . — Tightening Nut.

head F of screw (r. Force is applied on handle in direction of arrow. To avoid springing jaws and scarring work, place

WRENCHES.

25

wrench with nut H well in against bar B. Never use monkey wrench as a hammer.

81, Pipe attachment for monkey wrench. Fig. 32. — To wrench L is attached taper jaw M with teeth, by screw N.

PIPE ATTACHMENT

Fig. 32. — Using Monkey Wrench as Pipe Wrench.

When force is applied, wrench will grip and turn pipe P. A piece of a -|" round file makes a good pipe attachment. It is pressed against pipe and sUding jaw.

82. Solid wrench, Fig. 33, has less tendency than a monkey wrench to round the corners of nuts and cap screws. ;

Fig. 33. — Solid Wrench.

Fig. 34. — Tool-Post Wrench;

83. A tool-post wrench, A^ Fig. 34, is used on head of screw B of tool post C to fasten tool D.

ELEMENTS OF MACHINE WORK

84. Socket wrenches, A, Fig, 35, are used to operate nuts and cap screws that are located in deep places, as nut B.

Fto. 36.

86. Spanner wrenches of many forms are used to operate circular nuts or collars. Wrench A, Fig. 36, is being used N to turn the circular nut B to adjust and fasten

i box C of spindle D. Pin E of spanner fits into

Jf*^ hole F of nut.

86. Screw-driver, Fig. 37, is made of steel, hardened and tempered. To avoid injury to sides

cma

Fio. 37. — Screw-Dbiybb,

of slot in screw, its sides must be ground parallel VjJ as at A and its edges B and C slightly rounded.

V-B 87. Plumb bob, fig. 38, is used to test and

Flo. 38.— establish verticals in setting up machinery shaftPldub Bob. j^^^^ gj^^ jj jg g,^gj ^^^ mercury at A, point B is hardened and body and point are ground. It is suspended with fine silk line C attached to nut D. In the absence

SPIRIT LEVEL.

27

of a regular plumb bob, an improvised one may be made by tying a string to a nut or collar.

88. Spirit level, Fig. 39, is used to establish horizontals and verticals, to level and shafting machines.

SPIRIT LEVEL

I

iLiroiv.caigp^v^iaE]

Fig. 39. — Spirit Level.

Three tubes at -4, jB, and C in frame are nearly filled with alcohol, leaving a small air space called the " bubble."

Tube A is used to test horizontals. Tubes B and C to test verticals. When bubble is central with line on tube, the work is true.

The truth of a level may be tested by blocking up one end until the bubble is central; then reverse level, and if bubble returns to the center, the level is correct.

89. Pliers are made in a variety of styles and sizes. Parallel pliers. A, Fig. 40, are so constructed that the jaws open to the

PLIERS

, r

FiQ. 40. — Bending Metal with Pliers.

full capacity parallel to each other, giving a very effective hold on work B.

90. Nippers or wire cutters. — There are many styles; some cut at the end, others at the side. Pliers are also obtainable that have nippers and are called combination or cutting pliers.

28 ELEMENTS OF MACHINE WORK.

To cut off a piece of wire with nipper A^ Fig. 41, pass wire B between jaws and compress handle. Stops C and D may be

CUTTING NIPPER

Fig. 41. — Cuttinq orr Wire with Ctjttinq Nippers.

adjusted to prevent jaws from touching and dulling each other, and spring E keeps them open.

To cut hard wire, nick with file or emery wheel and break off by bending.

CHAPTER III. CHIPPING: HAND AND POWER. TOOL-GRINDING. ^ CHIPPING: HAND AND POWER.

91. Hand work includes operations, such as chipping, filing, scraping, and fitting, performed with hand tools, and dates back to the Stone Age, when stone tools were applied and used in the same manner as chisels and files are used to-day.

The guide principle in hand tools can be traced from the simplest hand tools to the most complex machine tools. The tool that possesses the guide principle in a large degree is comparatively easy to manipulate, while one that possesses it only in a small degree requires special training. The carpenter's plane possesses the guide principle in a large degree. The chipping chisel with its single cutting edge and no support but the hand is the simplest form of cutting tool but is difiicult to use. A file possesses the guide principle only in a limited degree, for it cuts at every part of its surface.

Fig. 42. — Holding Work in Vise.

29

30

ELEMENTS OF MACHINE,* WORK.

92. Machinists' vise, Aj Fig. 42, is made of cast iron with parallel jaws B and B\ It is fastened to bench C, 33" or 34" in height, by bolts or lag screws, as at D and D\ The sliding jaw B' is moved in or out to grip work E by screw F, operated by handle 0. The jaws are faced with steel milled to increase their grip. Some vises can be swiveled to any angle, and others have one swivel jaw for holding taper work.

Soft supplementary jaws of copper, brass, lead, leather, or wood, should be supplied on vises to protect finished work.

93. Chipping hammer, designated by the shape of its peen, as at Ay B and C, Fig. 43, weighs from f to If pounds. A

BALL PEKN HAMMER

A

HANDLE D

CROSS PEKN HAMMER

c

FiQ. 43. — CmppiNa Hammers, DiprsRENT Types.

li -pound ball peen made of carbon steel hardened tempered on face and peen is suitable for the average stu

and average student.

J

CHIPPING CHISELS.

31

The different peens are used for various kinds of riveting, peening and stretching metal.

Handle D is of hickory, 10" to 16" in length, depending on weight of hammer, and is not too stiff at shank E to cause a shock that would tire the hand and arm. The handle is fitted in head F and held by an S-shaped iron wedge, (?. The face H is slightly crowning.

94. Flat cold chisel, A, Fig. 44, is made of octagonal tool steel (70-point). Flats B and B' are forged to plane surfaces,

Fig. 44. — Chipping Chisel.

symmetrical with the sides of steel. Head C and C is reduced. Cutting edge D, is forged wider than the body. Thickness of D' is about ■^". A thick chisel is both difficult to grind and to hold to the cut.

Q

COLO CHISEL. E

T 60"-^^

Fig. 45. — Improved Chipping Chisel.

95. An improved cold chisel, E, Fig. 45. The blade is drawn thin as at F, F' and packed by heavy blows with hammer given under a dull red heat.

32

ELEMENTS OF MACHINE WORK.

96. To grind cold chisel. A, Fig. 46. Grind bevels flat. If convex, as at B, it will be impossible to hold the chisel to the cut and chip a smooth surface. The bevels should be ground parallel to the flats and slightly purved at C. Wrong methods of grinding are shown at D, E, F, and G,

A B C D

0000 BEVEU BAOaiVCL VERY GOOD GOOD

ee

E

■AO

END VIEW OF CHISELS

Fig. 46. — Good and Bad Chisel Grinding.

The cutting angle is changed to suit the nature of material to be cut. For cast iron it is 60° to 70°; steel and wrought iron, 50° to 60°; brass, 40° to 50°; the softer metals as copper, Babbitt, and lead, about 35°. Grind the chisel to as sharp an angle as will stand and do good work.

97. In machine work there are two processes — Roughing and finishing. —

Roughing is the process of rapidly removing surplus stock, with one or more cuts, with approximate accuracy, leaving an allowance for finishing with one cut.

Finishing is the process of taking the last cut to produce a smooth, accurate surface and a desired size.

Chipping often corresponds to roughing; and fiUng to finishing. Chipping is used to prepai:e castings and forgings to be machined,' to snag castings (see § 375), to fit castings to each other, to cut keyways in shafts, pulleys and gears, and oil grooves in bearings, etc. The most skilful chipping is done in making steel cutting dies and punches.

Attention. — Snagging is the process of removing the sprues, gates, fins and other projections from castings by chipping and filing with old files.

J. 47. — CoKBBcr FoamoM fob Cbippikci.

34

ELEMENTS OF MACHINE WORK.

98. Method of using cold chisel. — The chisel is grasped as in Fig. 47 with sufficient force to guide and hold it to the cut. The eye follows the cutting edge, not the head of the chisel.

99. Method of using a hammer. — Grasp the handle near the end with sufficient force to control the blow, swing arm back from elbow, carrying the head of the hammer about vertically over the shoulder, Fig. 47. Begin with short light strokes and increase to long and vigorous blows for effective work.

100. Lubricant for chipping. — Metals are generally chipped dry. When chipping key ways, slots, grooves, etc., in steel or wrought iron, the chisel will cut better if occasionally touched to a piece of cotton waste well saturated with oil.

101. Method of beginning and continuing a cut. — To chip to line AB, Fig. 48, take heavy roughing cuts as CD (tV to •^ff" in depth) and leave ^V for finishing.

BLOCK

PAORINO ■LOCK

K

Fig. 48. — Beginning the Cut.

The dotted line CD represents depth of first roughing cut. To begin cut, place chisel E horizontally," and by a sharp blow remove chip F, as at G, Fig. 49. Then incline chisel upward, as at E\ Fig. 49, until lower bevel makes small angle H to line of cut CD' for clearance. If material is hard cast iron, the

CHIPPING.

35

chip will fly off; if steel or wrought iron, the chip will curl upward as at J, Fig. 50.

Attention, — Hold work so that it may be operated upon horizontally if possible. Work may be prevented from slipping by packing block K, Fig. 48.

CHISEL

Q

1

Hrl^^

V

BLOCK

Fig. 49. — Roughing Cut,

Cast Iron.

Fig. 50. — Roughing Cut, Steel OR Wrought Iron.

To prevent breaking out at end in chipping, especially cast iron, stop cut ^" from end of work, reverse work in vise and chip remainder.

102. Cap e chisel, Fig. 51 (cross-cut chisel), is used for cutting key ways, grooves, and work of similar nature. It is thin at point A and wide at B to give strength. It is

Q

ni*

Q

Fig. 61. — Cape Chisel.

ground to decrease in width from A to C for clearance. A cape chisel is necessary in chipping broad surfaces by chipping a series of grooves to the required depth, about ^^ apart, across the surface; then the ridges are removed with a flat chisel.

/

36

ELEMENTS OF MACHINE WORK.

103. A small rotind-nose chisel or gouge^ Fig. 52, is used for half-round chamfers or small grooves. It is made wider at A

Q

D

c

Fig. 62. — Small Round-Nose Chisel.

Fig. 53. — Chipping Concave Surface.

than at B to give it clearance, and thick at Dto give it strength. It is given a slight bevel shown at C, Fig. 52, and C, Fig. 53.

104. A large round-nose chisel or gouge. Fig. 54, is used to produce concave surfaces. It is wider at A than at B in order to

a

>

d

Fig. 54. — Large Round-Nose Chisel.

make it possible to govern the direction of cut. Its curvature must be of a smaller radius than that of the work it is to cut to give clearance. The front angle is ground to about 45°, then a slight bevel is ground at C on under side.

CHIPPING CHISELS.

37

106. A center chisel or oil-groove chisel, A and B, Fig. 55, is used in the operation of drilling to draw drill, also to

I3-A

c^

Fig. 55. — Cbnter Chisei:^.

chip oil grooves in bearings or boxes. To chip circular oil grooves use a bent chisel.

106. A diamond-point chisel. Fig. 56, is used for forming square corners in holes, key ways, and work of similar nature.

G

Fig. 56. — Diamond-Point Chisel.

It is also used by boiler makers for cutting holes. For heavy cuts it should be slightly beveled at C,

Q

1

Q

4^«\

Fig. 57. — Side-Chipping Chisel.

107. A side chisel, Fig. 57, is used for chipping the sides of slots, key ways, grooves, etc. For heavy cuts it is beveled at C.

38

ELEMENTS OF MACHINE WORK.

108. To chip plane surfaces. Bevels, Fig. 58.

Fig. 58. Schedule Drawing op Chipping Plane Surfaces, t

SCHEDULE OF OPERATIONS.

ROUGHING

Stock — Iron Casting.

FINISHING Tool— Flat Chisel

Snag block with cold chisel. Coat with chalk a portion of sides, ends, and top, and smooth with fingers, (1), (2).

Set scriber of bench surface gage A from leveling plate. Draw lines all around, (3), (4).

Hold blockMn vise with bevel lines horizontal. Grind chisel to angle of 60°.

Rough chip bevel all aroimd (5) A, (6) A", two cuts. Leave A" to A for finishing. If chisel draws in too deep, lower chisel.

To finish, regrind chisel, press hard on work and chip to line, (7). Test with blade of square. With i" cape chisel chip spot for name, (8), and stamp with steel stamp.

Attention, — Keep chisel sharp and cut continuously. If it does not keep its edge, test with file; if hard, regrind; if soft, reharden and temper. When chisel becomes too thick, reforge.

PNEUMATIC CHIPPING.

39

109. Pneumatic hammer. — The cold chisel may be used by power more effectively than by hand by means of the pneumatic hammer A, Fig. 59, shown chipping the boiler front B, resting on bench C. The chisel D has a hexagonal shank and fits the socket of the machine. The handle E of the machine is held with the thumb on the trigger F, which controls the air supplied to the hammer. The air is delivered at a pressure of

J PNEUMATIC HAMMER

Fig. 69. — Pneumatic Chipping.

about 80 pounds per square inch through hose G. To begin a cut, the trigger is pressed lightly; after the cut is started, more air is admitted, making the blows harder and more rapid. Pneumatic hammers are used for chipping, calking, and beading boiler tubes, etc.

ELEMENTS OF MACHINE WORK.

TOOL GRINDING. "•

110. Wet tool grinder. — Fig. 60 consists of column A, griuJiog wheel B m dust-proof bearings C, belt D, water pipe E, pump F, bait G, and tool rest H. A No. 30 grinding

- Wet Tool Grinder.

wheel, grade 3f (silicate process), is used for grinding cutting toola. The wheel should be not less than 20" in diameter and 1^" to 2" face, is used wet and run at a surface speed of 4000 F.F.M. A small quantity of sal soda in the

TOOL GRINDING. 41

water will prevent rust of machine and tools and improve the cut of emery wheels.

111, Emery or grinding wheels (see Abrasives, § 176) for automatic grinding machines are run at 5000 feet per minute periphery speed; but for special work from 4000 feet to 6000 feet may be used. A wheel running at 4000 feet has a maximum stress of 48 pounds; 5000 feet, 75 pounds; and 6000 feet, 108 pounds per square inch.

Wheels should be run as slowly as practicable to have an ample margin of safety.

Attention. — The term emery may mean emery, corundum, alundum, or carborundum, as all of these abrasives are used for grinding wheels.

112. To calculate speeds of emery wheels. — To find the surface speed in feet per minute of an emery wheel: first, obtain with a speed indicator the number of revolutions of the emery wheel spindle per minute. Then divide the number of revolutions of the wheel per minute by 12y and multiply the result by 3.1416 times the diameter of the emery wheel in inches.

Example, — Find the surface speed of a 24-inch emery wheel making 637 revolutions per minute.

Soiuiion. — -Vir X 3.1416 X 24 = 4000 feet per minute. This is an effective and safe surface speed for wet tool grinders, for emery wheels made by either the silicate or vitrified process, and for hand grinding.

To find the number of revolutions an emery wheel spindle should run to give a required cutting speed, diameter of wheel and feet per minute being given.

Rule. — Multiply the diameter of emery wheel in inches by 3.1416 and divide the feet per minute (reduced to inches) by that product.

Example. — Find the revolutions of a spindle for a 24-inch emery wheel to run 4000 feet per minute.

„ , . 12 X 4000 ^^^ , ^.

Solution. — — — — — — = 637 revolutions.

24X3.1416

42

ELEMENTS OF MACHINE WORK

113. To true emery wheel by hand ae at A,

Fig. 61. — Use dresser B dry or, preferably, with water. For heavy truing, move tool rest C back about J" and clamp. Place projections D inside of rest and

Fig. 62. — Thbino Roll roREMEmr Wheel, Double Wheel Wet Tool Gribdeh.

Fjo. 61. — Tbcino Emehy Wheel

press hard on rest. Haise handle E and move dresser back and forth across face of wheel as shown by arrows. For light truing, move tool rest closer to wheel, place projections F of dresser B on rest, press down hard and move dresser back and forth.

When hardened steel disks G become worn, replace with new ones. Instead of using dresser by hand, special dresser H may be used in slide rest J, which is clamped to machine in place of tool rest C.

114. To true emery

wheel by power with truing roll A, Fig. 6. — Oil roll

bearings and turn hand wheel B to force roll against revolv- , ing wheel with considerable pressure.

TOOL GRINDING. 43

Water supply. — By hand wheel C one end of trough D is lowered into tank E and the water flows from tank into trough and against revolving wheel which delivers water through guide F to tool. Rest guard G prevents spattering.

115. Truing with a diamond tool. — To true emery wheel A, Fig. 63, use diamond tool B which coi^ists of black diamond C set in end of holder.

Use dry or, preferably, with water. Hold perpendicular to wheel, press firmly on rest and move across face of wheel.

Fio. 63. — Trciso Embby Whebi, with Diamond Tooi,.

It may be used also in slide rest D. Diamonds are set in two forma of holders — round for general use, and rectangular, "which can be used in a tool post.

116. Grindstone A, Fig. 64, consists of frame B, driving belt C, water supply pipe DE, drain pipe F, tool rest G, and truing device H. The grindstones used are Ohio, Nova Scotia, English, and Huron sandstone.

A stone should be soft, coarse, and have uniformity of grit for edge tool grinding, and should revolve at a surface speed of 500 to 600 F.P.M. It is used with water but is never

44 ELEMENTS OF llACHINE WORK.

allowed to stand for a long time ia water, aa it would soften. Long exposure to the sun would make it hard.

117. Grindstone truing device, Fig. 64, is clamped to trough on side of stone that moves upward. Turn wheel H to bring roll in contact with stone. When roll is dull, anneal, recut, and re-caseharden. A piece of pipe may be used instead of above, aa follows: clamp rest G bard to trough Fig. 64. — Grikdb B, hold pipe firmly on rest at an angle, revolve slowly across face of stone, dry.

118. To grind tools with emery wheel or grindstone. — The relative position of tool and grinding wheel shown in Fig. 65

TOOL GRINDING. 45

is correct. If chisel is held as in Fig. 66, a wire edge will be formed which is not desirable as in most cases it would have to be oilstoned ofif.

Warning, — The tool rest should be close to wheel and clamped firmly to frame to avoid accidents.

119. To grind cold chisel A, Fig. 67. — Apply pressure with the left hand supported and steadied on tool rest B. Hold tool at constant angle during grinding. See Fig. 46.

Fig. 67. — Grinding Cold Chisel,

Attention, — Grasp tool firmly when grinding to produce flat surfaces. Do not bear hard on emery wheel.

To avoid grinding point of tool exce3sively, move heel of tool to touch wheel first, then raise or tilt shank until bevel or face lies flat as indicated by the " feel." To produce a smooth edge and even wear on wheel, move tool back and forth slowly parallel with axis of wheel.

For Grinding Lathe and Planer Tools, see Principles of Machine Work.

CHAPTER IV.

FILBS. HAND AND MACHINE FILING. HOW FILES ARE MADE.

FILES.

120. Files are largely used to smooth work after it is turned, planed, milled, etc., and for some classes of work that are not machined. Files are also very useful where alterations are to be made. To file flat surfaces, the position of hands and arms should be such that the cutting strokes are parallel.

Classes of files. — Files are divided into two classes: hand and mill files. In the hand which is always used for flat surfaces, the clearance is provided by the convexity of the file; in the mill, or lathe file, which is never used foE flat surfaces, the curve of the lathe work provides the clearance. See MUl FUe, p. 51.

121. General description. — A file has three distinguishing characteristics, — its length, which is measured exclusively of its tang; its kind or name, which has reference to the shape or style; its cut, which has reference not only to the character but also to the relative degree of coarseness of the teeth.

' Shape of files. — Flat, half-round, round, square, triangular (three square), pillar, mill, etc.

122. Cut of files consists of three distinct forms, single cut, double cut, and rasp.

Fig. 68. — Single Cut File.

Single cut file, Fig. 68 has a single course of chisel cuts across its surface, parallel to each other, but at an angle to the central line, varying from 70° to 85° according to requirements.

46

FILES.

47

Double-cut file, Fig. 69, has two courses of chisel cuts crossing each other. The first or ** over cut is 35° to 55° with the central line, and the second or '* up cut " is from 70° to 85° and usually finer than the first.

Fig. 69. — Double Cut File.

^'^^♦^ 4i^^Hi% '»!* i»^ii^r»i^ >i»*'t«t'*i'*«t»'*'* " » V*»i»

Fig. 70. — Rasp Cut.

Rasp, Fig. 70, has the teeth disconnected; each tooth is made by a punch.

123. Coarseness is designated by the following terms:

Single Cut,

Dovble Cut,

Rasp,

Rough

Rough

Rough

Coarse

Coarse

Coarse

Bastard

Bastard

Bastard

2d Cut

2d Cut

2d Cut

Smooth

Smooth

124. Swiss pattern (extra fine) files compared with regular files. — Swiss pattern or extra fine files are designated by figures, as follows: 00, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8. Number

00 is coarsest and corresponds closely to the bastard; number

1 to the 2d cut; number 3 to the smooth; and number 5 to the dead smooth.

48

ELEMENTS OF MACHINE WORK.

Large files are slightly coarser than small files of same degree of coarseness.

125. Uses and names applied to files. — Coarse rasps are used by horseshoers, bastard by carriage makers, 2d cut by shoemakers, and smooth by cabinet makers.

Rough and coarse cut files are used on soft material, on leather, bone, etc.

The bastard file is the coarsest file used in general machine work. For bench work, the double-cut files of different degrees of coarseness are used, and for lathe work, single-cut.

File parts. — The different parts of a hand file are named in Fig. 71.

HEEL

A

SIDE!

^OINT

EDQE

Fig. 71. Parts op a File.

Safe edge (or side) is a name given to that part of a file that is without teeth.

126. Classes of files. — Regular files are divide from the form of their cross-section into three geometrical classes, quadrangular, triangular, and circular. Each class is again divided according to general outline of file into full taper, taper, and blunt. Taper and blunt of some kinds, both regular and Swiss pattern, with small cross-sections are called slim taper, slim blunt, half-round slim, square slim, round slim, three-square slim.

Fig. 72.

Full taper. — A file. Fig. 72, with a convexity on sides from point to heel, its greatest cross-section being near middle.

FILES.

49

Taper. — A file whose point is reduced in size (both width and thickness) by a gradually narrowing section extending from one-half to two-thirds length of file from point.

Slim. — A file smaller in its cross-section than regular file of its kind, and superseding regular patterns.

Blunt. — A file that preserves its sectional shape from point to tang.

127. Hand files. — A file parallel in width, with one safe edge and full taper or bellied in thickness. It is double cut and made

Fig. 73.

Fig. 74.

Fig. 75.

Fig. 76.

in regular cuts: hand bastard. Fig. 73; hand 2d cutj; Fig. 74; hand smooth, Fig. 75; and hand dead smooth. Fig. 76. Its convexity gives it clearance. These four files are used for smoothing flat and convex surfaces of planed or rough machine work. Lengths 4" to 16^^.

50

ELEMENTS OF MACHINE WORK.

Fia. 77.

Flat file, Fig. 77, a file taper in shape, double cut, mostly bastard, although 2d cut, smooth and dead smooth are used. While a common file, its uses are confined to rougher kinds of filing. Lengths 4" to 16".

Fig. 78.

Sqttare file, Fig. 78, has considerable taper; made in slim and blunt shapes, usually double cut; bastard being most used, although 2d cut and smooth are sometimes used. It is useful in enlarging holes of square or rectangular shape, as dies and key ways. Lengths 4" to 16".

Fig. 79. |

Pillar file. Fig. 79, resembles a hand file in general shape and cut. Made with one or two safe edges; useful on narrow work. Two sizes, narrow and extra narrow. Lengths 6" to 14".

Fig. 80.

Warding file. Fig. 80, is parallel in thickness, about xV" thick; has much taper in width; double cut and usually bastard; useful to file out ward notches in keys. Lengths 3" to 8".

FILES.

51

Fia. 81.

Mill file, Fig. 81, is slightly taper in width and thickness; usually single cut. Grades commonly used, bastard and 2d cut. It is made with safe edges and used for work in the lathe, also for draw-filing. Mill files made with round edges are used for filing mill saws. See Principles of Machine Work.

Attention. — A mill file is often called afloat file.

128. Saw file, Fig. 82, has teeth cut on its edges to stand tough steel. Very useful in machine work where strong edge is necessary. Made in both regular taper and slim taper. Lengths S to lO.

Fig. 82.

Three-square file is taper, double cut, sharp corners; used for acute internal angles. Bastard is most used; 2d cut and smooth have wide use for backing off taps and work of that class. Sometimes made blunt. Lengths S^ to 14^^.

Fig. 83.

Knife file. Fig. 83, is taper and double cut, of regular cuts. Resembles a knife blade; is useful for niches, inner angles, etc. Also made blunt. Lengths 3" to 10.

52

ELEMENTS OF MACHINE WORK.

129. Round file, Fig. 84, is made taper. Bastard cut is useful; for enlarging round holes and shaping concave work, etc. It is made in slim and blunt shapes and used for heavy work. Lengths 4^ to IQ^.

Fig. 84.

Half-roimd file, Fig. 85, is taper in shape and the half-round side is curved in length. Convex side is useful in shaping concave work. Flat side may be used for ordinary filing; edges useful in filing acute angles. Also made in slim and blunt shapes. Lengths 4^ to 16'^.

FiQ. 85.

130. Bent riffler. Fig. 86, is used in shaping and finishing irregular shaped cavities.

Fig. 86.

Half-round rasp, Fig. 87, is a useful file for wood. Lengths S to ir.

Fig. 87.

Lead float is single cut or float. Teeth are cut nearly straight across and very open, both of which are essential for lead or babbitt.

Special files for brass, bronze, copper, and other soft metals are obtainable with teeth cut more open and of a different

FILING. 53

angle than regular files. They are less liable to clog and are preferred to the regular files for these metals.

131. Wood handles for files are obtainable in different sizes. To fit handle to small file, drill hole axially true and of size about equal to diameter, of tang at middle, then drive handle carefully on to file. To fit handle to large file, heat tang of worn-out file of same size and burn out hole in handle and drive handle pn to tang nearly to shoulder.

Fig. 88.

132. File card, Fig. 88, is used to clean files to avoid clogging and scratching the work. Brush across the file in direction of its teeth.

133. Lubricant for filing. — Oil or chalk rubbed on the file will make it cut steel or wrought iron smoother but slower. Never use oil when filing cast iron or brass. ' Oil may be removed from a file by rubbing freely with chalk, then brushing off with a file cord.

134. Pinning. — In filing steel, wrought iron, or any tenacious metal, a file is likely to " pin," that is, have filings wedge between the teeth. It is prevented to some extent by filling the spaces between the teeth with chalk or oil or both. To remove filings that a file card fails to dislodge use a thin piece of soft iron (A, Fig. 88), never hard steel.

135. The proper care of a file. — Files should be kept in special compartments to avoid injuring their teeth.

HAND AND MACHINE FILING.

136. Height of work. — For general purposes, the top vise jaws should be level with elbow. Very heavy filing is done more easily with work lower, while for very light filing it should be higher.

54

ELEMENTS OF MACHINE WORK

Fig. 89. — Correct Position for Filing.

137. For correct position of feet and body and hands.

Fig. 89. — Throw the weight of the body upon the file for heavy fihng. On light filing, use pressure of the arms alone. A file will cut only on the forward stroke; relieve pressure on return stroke.

FILING.

55

Fig. 90. — CJobbect Position of Hands fob Filing.

Fig. 91. — Incobbect Position of Hands fob FnjNO.

Fig. 92. — ^ Cobbect Position of Hands fob Light Filing.

56 ELEMENTS OF MACHINE WORK.

138. To grasp file in cross filing. — The student should held file as in Fig. 90. Avoid holding as in Fig. 91, as it requires twisting the forearm, making it difficult to file a flat surface. The left hand may be used as in Figs. 90 and 92, alternately to rest hand and increase or decrease pressure.

139. To select a file is the most important thing connected with -filing. Use bastard and second cut for ordinary filing; smooth or dead smooth to remove only a small amount of stock and then only when a very fine finish is desired.

140. Try squares are used to establish right (90*^) angles, to test squareness, to lay out work, and to test flatness of surfaces.

141. To test flatness of surfaces, hold square A and block B at height of eyes, as in Fig. 93, with blade C slightly inclined

D \

wmm.

Fig. 93. — Testing Surface op Block.

toward you, and the light line between blade and surface will indicate truth or error. To produce true plane, test crosswise, lengthwise, and diagonally.

Attention, — For work of great refinement, use beveled edge square. It is held perpendicular to the work as at D, Fig. 93, and gives a line contact.

FILING. 57

1^. To test squareness, hold square A and block B at height of eyes, as in Fig. 94. Press beam C bard against trued surface with blade D slightly indined toward you, thea lower blade to lightly touch surface and light line will indicate truth or error.

TRY SQUARE

Fio. S4. — TESTiNa SqoASENcss -with Tbt SgnABB.

14S. To lay out work. — Hold beam of square against working surface and use blade to guide scriber.

Fw. 95. ScHBDULB Dbawino OP FiuNQ Plajiii Subfacbb.

144. To file and to square plane (flat) surfaces,' Fig. 95.

ELEMENTS OF MACHINE WORK.

SCHEDULE OF OPERATIONS.

ROUGHINQ. FINISHING.

Hold block in viae with copper jaws. Brighten upper portions ot mdes, (1) and (3), with 8' or 10" hand smooth file. Coat with copper sulphate and draw lines A" from top with bench surface gage on leveling plate, (3) (4).

Bevel long edges to theae hnes about 45°, (5) and (6) hand smooth file, as at (A) and (A').

To rough file, place work crosswise in vise and file surface (7) to

Fio. 9fl. — FiHBT RoroHiNG Cut.

lines with 10" or 12" hand bastard, with long strokes and heavy pressure, as follows: Begin as at D, Fig. 96, and file diagonally over

whole surface to E and same from D' to E', Fig. 97, Test work crosswise and lengthwise with blade of square used as strtught edge (see Fig. 93).

To finish file, place work lengthwise in vise, file lengthwise until work is fiat crosswise and until rough file marks are erased (8). Test lengthwise and chalk two marks, one each ^de of high spot. Place work in vise with hi^ spot

Flo, 97. — Second RocaHlNa Cct.

toward fixed jaw. With short strokes file with left hand pressing file directly over high spot until straight lengthwise. Test

FILING.

59

across corners for wind. File high comers to take out wind.

Note. — To finish, move file straight ahead so that when surface is flat file marks will lie lengthwise of block and be straight and parallel.

Stamp name (initials) with steel stamp in center of bottom (9) as shown at (10).

To file (11) square with (8), Fig. 95. Test (11) with square and

straight edge and file to finish as follows: file high side lengthwise only. Test as in Fig. 94 and chalk a line at the low spot and correct error. To finish, see Note above. To file (13) square with (8) and (11). Test (12) with (8) and (11). Place work in vise with high comer toward fixed jaw. Press file hard and file (13) with short strokes lengthwise only. To finish, see Note above.

Attention. — If a surface rounds perceptibly, increase pressure and shorten strokes.

145. Position of left hand to file out tool marks on broad surfaces (Fig. 98). — The fingers of left hand aflford all the pressure necessary for light filing.

Fig. 98. — Filing out Tool Marks.

Fig. 99.

146. Bending a file to give convexity, Fig. 99. — To avoid rounding a surface, a thin file may be bent upward.

60

ELEMENTS OF MACHINE WORK

Fig. 100. : — Filing Large Surface.

147. Surface file holder, Fig. 100, is used for filing large surfaces, which in addition to holding the file securely gives more or less convexity to cutting side.

N...

."i

Fig. 101. — Tilting File to Remove Stock Rapidly.

148. To remove rapidly a large amotmt of stock on work of small area, Fig. 101. Place stock A in vise B close to jaws to lessen tendency to chatter, and then tilt file first as at C, then as at D, then as at E.

^

B

|c 1

^^_

A WORK D 1

Fig. 102. — Using Safe Edge File IN Filing Plane Surface.

Fig. 103. — Canting Half-round File to Produce Sharp Corner.

149. Use of safe edge, Fig. 102, to file A and not B, and to file C and not Z). B and D are the safe edges. This will not produce a perfectly sharp corner.

FILING.

61

160. To produce sharp comer, use a fine half-round file slightly canted first as at E, Fig. 103, then as at F.

151. A safe rotmd file for bottom of circular groove. — Select a round file that will fit the groove or a little larger, then grind flats on opposite sides as at A and B, Fig. 104, until it freely enters groove.

MORTISE

WORK

Fig. 104. — Using Safe Edge File IN Filing Concave Surface.

Fig. 105. — Using Safe Edge File FOR Mortise or Slot.

152. A safe round-edge file for mortise or slot. A, Fig. 105, is used to cut away the walls between the drilled holes until space is large enough to use flat file B which has safe round edges. May use an ordinary hand file with edges ground approximately round.

Attention, — Files are obtainable with safe edges, or the teeth may be ground off.

163. Method of holding file for long holes, Fig. 106, when impossible to use regular stroke. For filing either square or round holes, a file should be as large in cross-section as can be freely used.

B

FILE

A

'-^^sse^s^^

WORK

Fig. 106. — Filing Long Hole with Round File.

Fig. 107. — Filing Concave Surfaces with Halfround File.

164 Method of filing concave stirfaces. — Use a half-round file as A, Fig. 107. It should be given a sweep sideways on

62 ELEMENTS OF MACHINE WORK.

the forward stroke from B to C by the action of the wrist. After a few strokes, the sweep should be reversed to carry it from C to B, causing file marks to cross and recrosa,

Fia. 108, D»AW-PILINQ PUNE SUHFACEB WITH HAND FlLB.

166. Draw-filing is used for finishing work Oaying tool or file marks lengthwise). Hold file at 75° to 80° from work as in Fig. 108, and push file sidewiae, using short strokes; relieve pressure on the return stroke. Draw-filing removes very little stock.

<r3.

Fio, 109. — Dkaw

156. To draw-file cylindrical surfaces, Fig. 109. Use light

pressure and change angle slightly with each forward stroke, as the contact is very narrow. Cylindrical parts of machines having a sliding movement are usually given their final fitting in this way.

FILING.

63

157. Filing wire. Freehand filing, Fig. 110. — To reduce a piece of steel wire to a point. Place block A in vise B and file a V groove in its top. Insert work C in hand vise D and fasten by screw E. Then rotate- work toward self with left hand and the same moment push the file forward with the right to produce a circular surface. If the work is to be rectangular or flat, hold it at rest; if circular or oval shaped, it may be partially rotated.

Fig. 110. — Freehand Filing.

158. Filing machine, Fig. Ill, is used for die making, metal patterns, templets, etc.

Schedule of Parts,

A — Column.

H — Feed screw, operated by

B — Countershaft.

hand.

C — Crank shaft.

D — File frame.

holding work.

E — File, operated vertically

K — Hand wheel for adjusting

by crank arm, slotted to allow ad

length of stroke.

justment of length of stroke.

F — Table ; maybe set tilted or

M — Air blasl for keeping

horizontal.

work clear of filings.

G — Work, cutting die.

Attention, — In figure 111 the file cuts on downward stroke. To make the cutting stroke upward, the file is reversed and the crank pin moved to opposite end of crank arm.

This machine is also used for sawing metal with a hack saw.

ELEMENTS OF MACHINE WORK,

Fla. 111. — Machine Fiuno.

169. Files are made of a special grade of carbon steel of the required cross-section. The stock is cut to the required length, forged to shape, annealed and ground.

160. Hand-cut files. — The teeth are cut with chisel as A, Pig. 112, on blank B which is secured on a pewter-faced anvil. The chisel is struck with a drawing blow by a special hammer which throws up a ridge across surface as exaggerated in

MANUFACTURING FILES. 65

Fig. 112, after which the chisel is moved until it encounters the ridge just made, when it is struck again, and so on.

FILE

MACHINe

CHISEL

A

/ /

Fig. 112. — File Teeth Hand Cut. Fig. 113. — File Teeth Machine Cut.

161. Machine-cut files are known as " Increment Cut " files because the rows of teeth are spaced progressively wider from point to middle and from heel to middle to prevent chattering. Fig. 113 shows chisel A, driven.by power, and file blank B fed along for each tooth in the direction of arrow. The majority of files used are machine cut.

162. To harden files. — The teeth of the file are covered with a coating of paste to protect the fine points from injury in heating.

After paste is dry, the file is heated in a lead bath to a red heat, then dipped in a cooling bath which has a temperature that will give proper degree of hardness. If a file warps in cooling, it is forced back to a straight line before it is cold and cold water poured on what was the concave side. The tang is annealed to prevent breaking, the teeth cleaned, and file is ready for use.

CHAPTER V.

SCRAPERS, SCRAPING AND STANDARD SURFACE PLATES.

POLISHING.

SCRAPERS, SCRAPING AND STANDARD SURFACE PLATES.

163. Uses of scraping. — Scraping is a process of cutting down the high places to produce better bearing surfaces between fitted parts of machinery; it is used to true up and fit the sliding surfaces and bearings of the better class of machines and engines, and has superseded the process of grinding surfaces together with emery and oil.

Tools used in scraping are a scraper, fine Arkansas or manufactured oil stone and a standard surface plate.

edge view Fig. 114. — Flat Scbaper for Plane Surfaces.

164. Flat scraper, Fig. 114, is the most effective when much scraping has to be done. It must be " glass hard."

165. To sharpen scraper. — Grind sides and edges smooth and end very slightly rounded in length. Then use oil stone, as in Fig. 115. Push scraper A forward and backward the length of oil stone B in direction of arrows C and D, then turn scraper around and repeat operation. To finish, the scraper is laid flat on stone and with both hands it is moved along stone in the direction of arrows C and D, Fig. 116, and repeated on other side. The width of cut is important; for small work use a width from Y to |". For large work a greater width is desirable, and may be obtained by sharpening end of scraper

66

\

FLAT SCRAPER.

67

as in Fig. 117, moving scraper forward and backward in direction of arrows C and D,

SURFACE SCRAPER

A

Fig. 115. — Oil-stoning End op Scraper.

Fig. 116. — Oil-stoning Side op Scraper.

Fig. 117. — Oil-stoning Scraper TO Produce Wide Cutting Edge.

166. A standard surface plate has the same relation to plane surfaces as a standard gage has to sizes. Surface plates, Fig. 118, are made from hard, close-grained cast iron and of a form that will retain their shape and with bearing points at A, B, C.

ELEMENTS OF MACHINE WORK.

Flo. 118. — Standard BtiBFACE Plates for Testinq Plane Svhtaces.

167. Harking. — To more clearly indicate by means of bright spota where the testing plate bears on the work, and in order to know where to scrape, marking is used consisting of red lead or, preferably, of Venetian red mixed with lard or machine oil to the consistency of putty. To use, wipe oil, grit, and dust, with cotton waste and hand, or band alone, from both work and plate, apply marking sparingly with the fingers, and spread with palm of hand into an extremely thin coating. If applied too thickly false bearings will result.

168. To scrape plane (flat) surfaces, Fig. 119.

SCRAPING.

69

SCHEDULE OF OPERATIONS. Stock — Iron Casting, Planed. Tool — Flat Scraper.

Plane all over and file to remove burrs. Secure work A to bench 5 as at C and D, and scrape lightly before appl3dng to standard surface plate. Push scraper E forward the width of its cut each time. Scrape one-third of the surface in direction of arrow F, another third in direction of arrow G, and the remainder in direction of arrow H, when work will appear as shown. Next apply marking to plate, and then move work on plate using light pressure and with a circular motion, principally toward outer edge of standard plate, to make the wear on latter even the standard plate is applied to large work.

Remove work to bench, when the high places on its surface will be shown by dark marks of marking, with bright spot in center. First scrape off all high places in direction of arrow F, then with a clean hand wipe work clean of grit, and also smooth the marking on plate.

with or without additional marking as one application may last for a number of tests, and apply work to standard plate again, then scrape high places in direction of arrow G, Proceed in this manner imtil bearings have increased considerably, then after each test scrape one-half spots off in direction of arrow F, leaving alternate spots to be scraped later in direction of arrow G. Proceed until bearing marks are numerous, then after each testing, scrape one-third of high spots from each direction. Continue latter method until the bearing marks approach closely and are imiformly distributed.

Attention. — Toward the last use very little marking, if any. Scrape at an angle to last course to prevent chattering and also to ^ve good appearance. The bearing points on machine surfaces should be imiformly distributed, but need not be numerous as on a standard surface plate.

169. Ornamental block scraping is an effective finish produced by carefully maldng length of cut about equal to its width, the last few times over the surface.

The surface may be finished by frosting or flowering with a flat or a hook-shaped scraper by drawing it forward.

70 ELEMENTS OF MACHINE WORK.

Fig. 120. — Scraped Straight Edge.

170. To scrape V-ways of a machine, use a standard straight edge, Fig. 120. It is of a form designed to remain straight; its edge is broad and scraped to a true surface.

171. To originate standard surface plates or straight edges.

— In the absence of any standard, make three of a kind and test them with each other in binary combinations, as the first to the second, the third to the second, the third to the first, to detect and enable errors to be corrected. An error common to all three cannot escape notice by this process if successively repeated.

172. To scrape without a standard. — Machine both parts as true as possible and use one as a standard to scrape the other, and then vice versa. This method will not give perfectly true surfaces, but with care good results may be obtained.

173. Bedding to mark work for scraping or filing. — Plane surface of pillow blocks, connecting rod brasses, etc., often have to be fitted where they cannot be moved over their seats. Coat one part with marking and place it on the surface to which it is to be fitted, then give it a light, sharp blow with hammer, which will indicate the high spots by the adhesion of the marking.

174. Scraping bronze or Babbitt bearings. — Use spindle as a standard for fitting, coat it with marking, and revolve it in the bearing. Scrape high spots with scraper AB, Fig. 121, moving it diagonally with a sweeping motion to secure a shearing cut.

/^

FlO. 121. SCBAPINQ BbONZE OB BABBITT BeABINQS.

176. Scrapers flat or half-round may be made from old files by grinding off the teeth and oil-stoning edges.

POLISHING.

176. Hetal is polished by rubbing with a natural abrasive, as emery or corundum, or by a manufactured abrasive, as alundum or carborundum; also with crocus, rottenstone, etc. Abrasives are used in various forms, as loose, mixed with oil, glued to cloth, paper, leather, canvas, etc.

Emery is a mineral consisting of corundum and protoxide of iron and it is next to corundum in hardness.

Corundum is a mineral composed chiefly of crystallized alumina, next to the diamond in hardness.

Alundum is made by subjecting bauxite (an amorphous hydrate of aluminium) to a temperature estimated between 6000° and 7000° F. in electric furnaces.

Carborundum is made by subjecting coke (carbon) and sand (silica) to a temperature estimated between 6000° and 7000° F. in electric furnaces. ......

72

ELEMENTS OF MACHINE WORK.

177. Number of emery. — Emery and other abrasives are crushed and ground from the rock or ingot, then sifted through sieves. The number is derived from the number of meshes per inch in the wire or silk sieve through which they are sifted. For example, emery that will pass through a sieve having 60 meshes to the inch and over one having 70 meshes, is called No. 60. The grains (and similarly emery wheels) are numbered 10, 12, 16, 20, 24, 30, 36, .46, 54, 60, 70, 80, 90, 100, 120, 150, 180, 200, and flour.

Flour of emery is used in five grades, F, FF, FFF, FFFF, and SF, which are graded in flowing water.

178. Table of the numbers of emery cloth and sandpaper compared.

Numbers of Emery

Numbers of Sand

Cloth or Paper.

paper.

46

3

64

2J

60

2

70

H

80

1

90

100

120

00

150

Flour, F, FF, FFF

000

179. Crocus (an oxide of iron) is formed into bricks or cakes of one grade, also glued to cloth. It may be used on any metal, especially brass, where a very high polish is desired.

180. Rottenstone, a mineral of grayish color, consisting chiefly of alumina. It is used in powdered form for smoothing machine work.

181. Polishing. — Work to be polished is usually finished by filing before applying emery cloth. Polishing reduces the size of work to some extent, which, though small, must be allowed for when exact dimensions are necessary. Emery paper is used on soft materials but rarely on iron or steel.

POLISHING. 73

182. Order of applying emery cloth. — For large work, roughly filed, apply'coarse emery cloth, 46 or 54, and as many of the successively finer grades, 60, 90, 120, and flour, as are necessary to obtain the desired poUsh.

If the work is carefully filed, or preferably, draw-filed, a good poUsh may be obtained with 60 and 90 emery cloth. An effective polish may be given to work very carefully filed, with 90 alone; and a briUiant polish by continuing with 120 and flour.

First apply the coarser cloth with hard, steady pressure until all tool or file marks are removed. Then apply the next finer cloth until evidence of the former coarse grade is removed, and so on, with successively finer grades of emery cloth until the desired polish is obtained. Use lard oil sparingly on the emery cloth or work, distributing it with the fingers.

Attention, — If on using the first finer grade of emery cloth the surface of the work shows deep scratches, tool marks or large pores, return at once to the coarser grade.

183. To polish flat surfaces on thin work. Fig. 122. — Hold block of hardwood or metal A in vise B and clamp work C to it with clamp D, Moisten a strip of emery cloth with lard oil and hold tightly under file F. Press hard, and rub back and

Fig. 122. — Polishing Flat Surface in Vise.

forth with short strokes, being careful not to round corners of work. Polish vise work lengthwise so that all lines will lie parallel. Polishing destroys the truth of work to some

74 ELEMENTS OP MACHINE WORK.

extent; therefore it is best to finish work by croaa or drawfiling so that excessive polishing will be unnecessary.

184. To polish a bolt head or nut. — Place finished bolt A, Fig. 123, in vise B between copper jaws C, C with one of the flats horizontal. File carefully and sparingly with an 8" or

FlO. 123. POLISHINQ Fl.\TS OF BoLT HE*D OE NuT IN VlBE.

10" hand smooth file. Moisten, a strip of No, 90 emery cloth with oil and hold under file E. Hold file and emery cloth firmly; apply considerable pressure forward and backward; use shcrt strokes,

186. To polish work of curved outline in a vise. — For narrow concave surfaces, hold emery cloth under a half-round file, and move it back and forth, following the curve. Polish long grooves lengthwise. For convex surfaces, the emery cloth is held under a flat file and applied in direction of length of work.

186. To polish large plane or flat surfaces, fasten emery cloth to a block of wood.

CHAPTER VI.

ANNEALING, HARDENING, AND TEMPERING CARBON STEEL.

HIGH-SPEED STEEL. CASE HARDENING. STRAIGHTENING

HARDENED AND TEMPERED TOOLS. TESTING

HARDNESS WITH SCLEROSCOPE.

ANNEALING, HARDENING AND TEMPERING CARBON

STEEL.

187. Annealing, hardening and tempering carbon or tool steel. — In the preparation of carbon steel for cutting tools and machine parts, three important operations are performed, annealing, hardening, and tempering.

If carbon steel is heated to clear red and allowed to cool slowly, it becomes soft or annealed; and if cooled suddenly, it becomes hard and brittle; if hardened steel is reheated slightly, then cooled, it becomes tempered, that is, hard, elastic, and tough.

Steel is hardened and tempered to enable it to cut hard substances, to increase its elasticity, to strengthen it, and to resist wear and abrasion.

188. Annealing, softens and relieves the internal strains of steel by slow cooling. The process of making carbon steel leaves it hard; to be machined, it must be annealed.

189. To anneal carbon steel, as stock for taps, dies, cutters, etc., heat slowly and uniformly to a clear red and then bury in ashes, lime, or charcoal. Unfinished tools, as lathe and planer tools, need not be annealed.

190. Water annealing. — To soften a piece of carbon or tool steel quickly, as a dead center of a lathe, heat the hardened portion to a clear red and hold it in a dark place until black, then plunge into water.

191. Commercial annealed carbon or tool steel in bars or other forms may be obtained at a slight increase in price.

76

76 ELEMENTS OF MACHINE WORK.

192. Annealed iron castings are used to some extent, as they may be economically machined.

193. To anneal copper, bronze, and brass. — Heat to a dull red and plunge quickly into water or allow to cool in the air.

194. Heat effects in the process of hardening carbon steel. — Dark red or black heat: will not harden; grain remains same

as in bar.

Dull red or dark cherry: will harden slightly; grain becomes closer than in bar.

Clear red or bright cherry: will harden properly; grain becomes fine and close.

Bright red or orangey yellow or lemon: will harden, but causes scaling and injury to steel; grain becomes open and somewhat coarse.

White heat: will burn and completely ruin steel; grain becomes very open and coarse.

195. To harden carbon steel, heat to a clear red and cool suddenly. The quicker the extraction of heat, the harder the steel becomes.

196. File test for hardness. — If a file will not cut into the steel, but slides over it, the steel is hardened " glass " hard. If the file readily cuts the steel, it is too soft, and the hardening process must be repeated. See Scleroscope, § 244.

Attention. — Repeated rehardening of finished tools, pieces with thick and thin parts, will often cause cracks.

197. Use of clay to avoid hardening portions of articles. — The walls of holes plugged with clay will not harden. Portions of articles or tools bandaged with a layer of clay and sheet metal will not harden.

198. To temper steel. — Heat hardened steel slowly. The higher the temperature is carried the greater the reduction of hardness. Cool piece suddenly by quenching to check temper at desired points indicated by color test or file test.

199. The color test for hardness. — Brighten the surface of piece to be tempered and heat slowly. Colors indicating different temperatures will appear on the brightened surface of metal. When the desired color appears, check temper.

HARDENING AND TEMPERING. 77

These colors begin with a pale yellow (430° F.) and continue through shades of straw, purple, and blue to a gray or black (about 650° F.) when all hardness will have left the metal. The color test is generally ^jfied when tempering at the open forge fire. Some one color within the range from a pale yellow (430° F. to a light blue (630° F.) is suitable for any purpose for which hardened steel or tools need tempering. See Tempering table, p. 89.

To temper small polished articles uniformly. — Heat sand to the desired temperature in an iron box, place articles in it, and when the desired color is obtained, remove and cool in oil, water, or in vaseline to improve the coloring.

Attention. — The color test is not necessarily a test of hardness. Unless a piece of carbon steel is known to be hardened, drawing the piece until the desired color appears indicates nothing except that it has been heated to a certain temperature, for colors can be obtained on a soft piece of carbon steel as readily as on a hardened piece, and on machine steel, wrought iron, or cast iron.

200. The thermometer test for hardness consists in drawing the temper in a bath of oil or tallow which is raised to the proper temperature gaged by a thermometer. The thermometer test is more reliable than the color test, and is used where large quantities of similar work are hardened and tempered.

201. File test for temper. — A piece of hardened steel tempered until a dead smooth file will Hte will have a temper equivalent to a dark straw. See Scleroscope, § 244.

202. Forge fire. — Use charcoal for fuel, or coke, or blacksmith's coal with all the impurities burned out. " Green coal " is injurious to steel. To harden a chisel, lathe or planer tool use open fire. For mandrels, arbors, taps, reamers, and drills, which must be heated evenly throughout, take away front of a well-built-up coal fire, leaving a bed and arch which will project the heat from all sides onto the steel.

203. MufiBie to prevent flames from striking steel and decarbonizing and injuring its surface. Make a muffle by placing a

78 ELEMENTS OF MACHINE WORK.

cap on the end of a piece of iron pipe of a diameter that will give plenty of room to accommodate work.

204. Gas furnaces produce intenst heat with little or no oxidation. Some are provided with muffles which insure even heat, protect the work from the flame, and prevent decarbonizing the surface of the steel. Gas and air are forced into furnace. The supply valves control the degrees of heat.

205. Use hot lead baths for heating drills, reamers, knife blades, files, etc., to give an even and desired heat. Heat the lead in a graphite crucible on a forge fire, or preferably, in an iron pot in a special gas furnace. A piece of cyanide of potassium melted in the hot lead will prevent the lead sticking and will clean the steel.

206. Electric furnace. — There are two classes of electric hardening furnaces, — those having the receptacle heated by electrodes, and those having the receptacle wound with platinum, nickel or ferro-nickel resistance heating wire. Desired temperatui'es are easy to attain and regulate for hardening.

207. Flux of salt and cyanide of potassium, or an atmosphere of purified gas, is often used to heat mainsprings, taps, and drills. Cyanide cleans the steel and prepares it for tempering.

208. Cooling baths are as essential as the proper heating of steel. Cooling tanks should be provided with appliances to keep the cooling liquid at an even temperature throughout. The most common method is to cool in a large tank of cold water.

Brine, composed of salt and water, is used in cases where extreme hardness is required or where the steel does not harden satisfactorily in water.

Lard or sperm oil baths are used for tools that do not require extreme hardness, as springs and work that is liable to crack if hardened in water. Carbon steel hardened in oil does not become glass hard.

Mercury is used where it is desired to make steel extremely hard. It extracts heat more rapidly than any other bath,

HARDENESTG AND TEMPERING. 79

and is used for small tools and some kinds of surgical instruments.

Special baths. — Among these are boiling water, hot water, lukewarm water, various acid solutions. A vessel of water with one or two inches of oil on top is an effective bath for cooling planer knives and other long thin tools to prevent cracking. They are cooled by passing them down through the oil into the water.

Cleansing baths. — To clean hardened work for polishing, such as taps, reamers, cutters, etc., pass it through the following baths, holding work in each bath about two minutes.

1. Solution of muriatic acid and water, 1 to 4.

2. Water.

3. Strong solution of lime-water.

4. Water.

5. Strong solution of sal-soda.

6. Water.

209. Points in annealing, hardening, and tempering: — Select stock for finished carbon tools large enough for removal of surface, which is decarbonized as it comes from the manufacturer and will not harden. Consider the conditions for hardening, as degree of hardness affects the temper of piece. Determine carbon percentage of steel, if possible, as a piece of high-carbon steel and a piece of low-carbon steel heated to the same temperature and cooled in the same bath, then drawn to the same color, will not be of the same temper or degree of hardness. Do not over or under-heat steel; it will not harden or temper properly, for a very little variation in heating steel may give a wide variation in results.

Attention, — Do not heat carbon steel above a light red except in the case of some special brands, as it will decarbonize, or may crack in hardening. If an unfinished carbon steel tool, as a chisel, lathe or planer tool, is overheated, reforging is the only remedy.

Heat and cool steel slowly and uniformly all over to avoid warping and cracking. While being heated, frequently revolve work and turn end for end in fire.

80 ELEMENTS OF MACHINE WORK.

To cool taps, reamers, etc., immerse in water endwise. Cool hanimera by flooding. Do not keep tools in bath until they are absolutely cold, tor they may crack when removed.

Irregularly shaped pieces are likely to warp and crack in heating and cooling if the thin part is allowed to become heated or cooled in advance of the thick part.

210. Unfinished tools, as lathe and planer tools, chisels, center punches, scriber, etc., are usually hardened and tempered in one heat, as follows : Heat a little more of the tool than is required to be hardened and dip the desired portion until almost cold, then polish the surface and use remaining heat to run down and draw temper. In cases where the remaining heat is not sufficient to produce correct temper, or where the colors come too slowly, place tool on a red-hot bar or in flame over forge fire. Use a hot plate for tempering thin pieces that are hardened outright.

BLACKSMITHtfFOROC

Fio, 124. — Heatino- Cold Chisel t

211. To harden and temper cold chisel, one heat. — Heat slowly to light red in forge fire, as in Fig. 124, about two inches

HABDENINQ AND TEMPEEraO. 81

of cutting end, up to A, Fig. 125. Quickly dip in water or brine about one inch up to B, B', until almost cold or until water will not steam on tool.

Attention. — To test color during heating, occasionally hold for a moment in dark corner of forge.

To cool quickly, move tool around or back and forth, as shown by arrows.

Fia. 125. — DipFiKQ Cold Chisel to Harden.

To avoid a crack where hardened and unhardened parts join, move tool up and down slightly while cooling. After removing tool from water and before polishing and tempering, quickly test with fine file for hardness. Tool should be glass hard.

212. To temper cold chisel, Fig. 126. — Quickly polish one face with polishing stick (emery cloth tacked or grain emery glued to stick) so that colors may be seen, and temper with heat in shank. Watch face. When point is dark blue, immerse whole chisel in water to fix or arrest temper. Test hardness with fine file. If tempering heat is too high, the colors will run too fast and too close together. In this case, dip and draw out quickly, when colors will come more utowly.

ELEMENTS OF MACHINE WORK.

F:o. 126. — PonsHiNO Face of Cold Chisel to Show Tempebino CoLona.

213. To temper in charcoal or coke flame. — Many tools, as chisels, lathe and planer tools, punches, long blades, etc., are hardened outright and slowly tempered to a desired color over a forge fire, as the long-blade cold ciiisel in Fig. 127.

Fra. 127. — Tdupbring Cold Chisel oveb Foroe Fibe.

Attention. — To obtiun njore distinct temper colors, wipe polished surface with oily waste while tempering.

214. To harden and temper diamond-point tool, one heat. Heat slowly to light red in forge hie a little more than

HARDENING AND TEMPERING. 83

forged part, as at A, Fig. 128, with point upward. Quickly dip point downward in water or brine as shown at B, B', and move about until nearly cold.

Fia. 128. — BiPFiNQ DiAUOND-PoiNT Tool t

216. To temper diamond-point tool. — Polish face quickly as in Fig. 129, draw to light straw by heat in shank, and cool

- PoLisniNo Face o

in water. If color comes too slowly, pa3S tool back and forth over forge iire, or hold on hot bar. Test hardness with fine file before and after tempering.

84 ELEMENTS OF MACHINE WORK

216. To harden and temper side tool, one heat. — Heat to

a light red in forge fire a little more than forged part, up to A,

Tia. 130. — Dipping Side Tooi. to Haudbn.

Fig. 130, with point upward. Quickly dip point downward in water or brine the distance shown at B and B', and move about until almost cold.

Fia. 131. — PoLiBBiMo Face of Side Tool to Show Teuperino Colobs.

217. To temper side tool. — Polish side face as in Fig. 131, draw temper to a light straw by heat in shank of tool, and cool in water. Test hardness with fine file before and after tempering.

HARDENING AND TEMPERING.

85

218. To hardeo and temper side tool, two heats. — Heat only to B, Fig. 130, and dip to B. Polish face and temper on hot bar as in Fig. 132.

219. To harden and temper a spring. — Heat uniformly to a light red and dip in cotton-seed oil or sperm oil; then hold over fire until oil on spring blazes and again dip. Repeat " blazing off" three times, which is about equal to drawing to dark blue. Large springs are often hardened by heating to clear red and plunging into boiling water.

220. Two heats are used to harden and temper finished tools of carbon or tool steel, such as taps, dies, reamers, drills, milling cutters, etc.

221. To harden a tap. — Heat slowly and evenly all over to a light red in charcoal or coke forge fire or in gas or coal fur

FiQ. 133. — Hakdenino Tap.

nace; then quickly plunge into clean cold water, as in Fig. 133, and move about under water until cold. Test hardness with fine file. Attention. — Taps are often dipped vertically.

m ELEMENTS OF MACHINE WORK.

222. To temper a tap. A Fig. 134. — Polish to enable colors to be seen. Heat metal ring B, two or three times

diameter of tap, to light red. Hold shank of tap in tongs,

pass threaded part through ring, revolve and move back and forth until color is uniformly drawn to a light straw. Cool in oil or in vaseline. If shank is slender, draw to dark straw. The slower temper is drawn, the stronger tool will be. See To Temper in Oil, § 227.

Attention. — More than one hot ring may be required to temper a tap,

223. To harden mandrel. A, Fig. 135. — Heat aU over in molten lead B, in

when raised to light red dip vertically in water D, or brine, and move about F^o.i3a.-HiAiiNamNDBEi.iNLE*i.. "itil nearly cold. Test hardness with fine file. 224. To temper ends of mandrel. — Polish reduced portions

oE ends in hand lathe and vise. Heat metal ring, draw ends

HARDENING AND TEMPERING. 87

of mandrel to dark straw, and cool as in S 221. Ends may be given a black finish by not polishing, and mandrel may be tempered all over or only at ends in oil (440° F.). See To Temper in Oil, I 227.

226. To harden carbon steel spiral milling cutters. — A carbon steel milling cutter may be heated in a hollow forge fire or, preferably, in gas, coal, or crude oil, furnace, as in Fig. 136, to a light red; then dip endways all over in water and

HEATING- DIPPING CRUDE OIL FURNACE

TANK— WATEK OR BRINE Fio. 13S. — Hardeninq Carbon Steel Miluhq Cutter.

move about. If the cutter is large, it is good practice to take it out after a few moments and finish cooling in oil. To avoid cracking, take from water or oil while slightly warm and allow to cool in air.

226. To temper milling cutters. — Polish cutter to enable colors to be seen. Select bar slightly smaller than hole in cutter, heat to red heat and insert in cutter. Revolve cutter on bar eo that it will receive heat evenly. Temper teeth to a light straw color and cool in oil. This method leaves central portion tough and outer portion hard.

88 ELEMENTS OF MACHINE WORK.

227. To temper in oil. — Work may be more rapidly and uniformly tempered in oil than by the color process, and this proceBH ia used for tools which need not show color temper, as milling cutters, dies, taps, reamers, mandrels, punches, knives, shear blades, etc. See Table, p. 89.

Fig. 137 shows methods of tempering milling cutter in oiltempering gas furnace. The pot ia nearly filled with " black

MMERSmO IN HOT OIL

FiQ, 137. — Oil Tbuperino Millino Cdtteb.

tempering oil," which can be safely raised to a temperature of 630" F., and will temper steel from a straw color to a light blue. The burners are underneath the pot and are lighted through door A with torch, and regulated by gas valve S and air valve C. When thermometer D indicates proper temperature, which for milling cutters should be between 440° F. and 470° F., depending on the kind of cutter, submerge cutter (dry) in the oil. As this usually lowers the temperature of the oil, allow work to remain until it rises to the proper degree, then remove and allow work to cool in the

TEMPERING.

89

TEMPERING TABLE.

WITH DEGREES OF HEAT TO WHICH TEMPER COLORS CORRESPOND,

Tools.

Scrapers, burnishers, hammer faces, reamers, small tools, paper cutters, lathe and planer tools

Lathe and planer tools, hand tools, milling cutters, reamers, taps, boring bar cutters, embossing dies, and razors

Drills, dies, chuck jaws, dead centers, mandrels, arbors, drifts, bending dies, and leather-cutting dies

Small drills, rock drills, circular saws (for metal), drop dies, and wood chisels

Gold chisels (for steel), center punches, scratch awls, ratchet drills, wire cutters, shear blades, cams, vise jaws, screw-drivers, axes, wood bits, needles, and press dies

Cold chisels (for cast iron).

Springs and wood saws

Light springs and blacksmiths' punches

Flashing point black tempering oil (danger)

Flashing point cotton-seed tempering oil (danger)

Steel anneals, dark cherry color

Steel hardens, light red color

Tempering by

COLOB.

Light straw. . . .

Medium straw .

Dark straw

Brown,

Purple

Dark purple . . . Dark blue

Light blue.

Tempering in Hot Oil.

Fahr.

430«

450

470

500

530 550 600

630

660

700

900-1300

1200-1400

Cent.

221*

232

243

260

277 288 316

332

349

371

483-705 649-760

Attention, — To transfonn degrees Centigrade (C.) to degrees Fahrenheit (F,), or vice versa, use the following formulas : — F. - 1.8 C. + 32°; C. - | (F. - 32°).

90 ELEMENTS OF MACHINE WORK

Fig. 138 shows method of tempering several pieces in wire basket, as taps, dies, milling cutters, etc.

The basket may be filled to the top. At proper temperature, submerge basket in oil, and when temperature rises to proper degree, remove basket.

MMERSINQ tN HOT OIL

Fia. 138. — Ou. TXMFEBiNa Setebai. Pieces at Once.

Work should remain in oil from 10 to 15 minutes, depending on the size. Large work should remain longer than email work.

Attention. — Dry the work before immersing it in the oil, for if water adheres to the work it will cause the oil to spatter, and to boil over if work is lowered suddenly.

228. To harden to proper degree without tempering. — Files are hardened by heating them in lead raised to proper temperature and cooling in water or oil also of a proper temperature.

HIGH-SPEED STEEL.

229. High-Speed steel is an alloy of either iron and tungsten; iron, tungsten, and molybdenum; or iron, molybdenum, and chromium. To the alloy is added about 25% of vanadium. It is made by the crucible process. It is hardened by raising to a white heat, about 2100° F, Forged tools are cooled in a blast of air, and finished tools are cooled in oil. Tools may or may not be tempered. Tools made from some grades

HIGH-SPEED STEEL. 91

of this steel can be used until the cutting edge is red hot before breaking down. High-speed steel can be annealed and machined with high-speed tools at about the same cutting speed as carbon steel tools will machine annealed carbon steel. It is also obtainable in hardened bars which may be cut to lengths by nicking all four sides with an emery wheel, tjien breaking off cold.

High-speed steel tools have shown a cutting efficiency of from 50% to 200% greater than carbon steel. This increase is obtained not so much in the finishing processes but in roughing out or removing a large amount of stock. To obtain the full benefit of this steel, machines of greatly increased strength and driving power are built.

230. To forge high-speed steel lathe and planer tools. — Heat slowly in well-burned, hollow, coal or charcoal forge fire to high lemon color and forge in ordinary way. There is little danger of burning. After forging, allow tool to cool gradually in dry place.

231. To anneal high-speed steel. — Pack in sand in a castiron box made air-tight. Heat to 2100° F. and cool slowly.

232. To harden high-speed steel, heat cutting edge. A, Fig. 139, in well-burned hollow coal or charcoal forge fire to white

ROUUHINQ TOOL

Fig. 139. — Hardening High Speed Steel Lathe Tool in Air Blast.

heat or until a flux like melted borax forms on nose of tool, confining heat to ^ or f inch of nose. Cool in blast of air, as shown, or it may be cooled in oil, butnever in water.

92 ELEMENTS OF MACHINE WORK.

233. To temper high-speed steel, or relieve strains, dip in oil heated to 460" F. and cool in air.

234. To grind high-speed steel, use wet emery wheel or grindstone employing light pressure to avoid production of surface cracks, and grind until all scale is removed.

236. To hardeo and temper high-speed steel cutter. Fig. 140. (Lathe or planer tod.)

HEATING -DIPPING

Fio. 140. SCHEDULE OF OPERATIONS.

To Harden.

Heat cutter A to white heat (2100° P.), in gas furnace B. Drop in cotton-seed oil C to cool. To remove, ndse wire basket D.

A jet of wr is forced up through

oil by pipe E from pressure tdower F to keep the oil at a uniform

temperature.

. To Temper. Immerse in oil heated to 450° F. and cool in wr.

HAKDENING AND TEMPERING HIGH-SPEED STEEL. 93

236. To barden and temper high-speed steel milling cutter. Fig. 141.

Fio. 141.

SCHEDULE OF OPERATIONS.

To Harden. Heat cutter to white heat (2100*= F.) in muffle gas furnace. Cool in cotton-aeed oil.'

To Temper. Immerse in oil heated to 450« F. and cool in air.

237. To heat high-speed steel tap ii L42. Finished work.

barium chlciide. Fig.

94

ELEMENTS OF MACHINE WORK.

SCHEDULE OF OPERATIONS.

To Harden,

Heat barium chloride A in gas furnace B from 1900° F. to 2100° F. Test temperature with pyrometer C Place tap D (preheated) in basket E of sheet nickel. Immerse in barium chloride 3 to 4 minutes. Cool in oil. See § 235. Clean in boiling caustic soda.

Note, — Use two fire ends F when first raising temperature to check danger of overheating steel. Charcoal may be used on top of chloride to prevent oxidation, but it has a tendency to pit tool.

To Temper,

Immerse in oil heated to 460° F. and cool in air.

Attention, — Preheat high-speed steel to a red heat in another furnace before placing in high-temperature furnace, to avoid springing or cracking.

CASR-HARDENING.

238. Case-hardening or pack-hardening is the process of converting the surface of machine steel, wrought iron and malleable iron into carbon steel by heating finished articles in the presence of carbon and suddenly cooling. Many articles, as nuts, wrenches, and other machine parts, and some finishing and cutting tools are made from machinery steel or wrought iron and then case-hardened.

Three processes of case-hardening or carbonizing: —

First, rapid cyanide of potassium or prussiate of potash process.

Second, the slower, but more thorough, box process. Third, carbonizing -with gas.

239. To case-harden with cyanide of potassium or prussiate of potash. — Heat a piece to a cherry red in the usual way; sprinkle powdered cyanide of potassium over the work with shaker or spoon or dip the work into the cyanide, and reheat slowly to a cherry red; then plunge into cold water. This

CASE-HARDENING. 95

process permits of case-liardening any portion of a piece by localiaing the application of cyanide of potassium.

240. To case-harden mthout colors by box process. — The

old process is to pack the pieces in an iron box surrounded by scraps of leather, hoofs cut into small pieces, salt, etc.

The modern method is to pack the articles in iron boxes A, Fig, 143, between layers of granulated bone black, or raw bone and cover with iron fiUngs or with an iron cover cemented with clay. Heat boxes to a hght red (1400° F. to 1500° F.) in case-hardening furnace B, for two to four hours according to the depth of hardening desired. When ready, remove the cover and dump contents of box C into clear, cold, soft

96 ELEMENTS OF MACHINE WORK.

water D. Remove articles by sieve hung below surface of water.

To clean work, separate from bone and boil in clean water. Dry in sawdust, and oil to bring out color and prevent rusting.

To case-harden with colors. — To obtain the finest colors and mottling the heat must be uniform, the work bright and clean, the bone charred without burning it before work is packed in it, and an air pipe should be connected with water pipe so that air and water will mix and come into the tank together otherwise the work may be hard but without coloring. Delicate articles may be dipped in oil.

Attention, — Case-hardening and annealing coal furnace B is used for case-hardening by day and the heat utilized for annealing by night. Work to be annealed is packed in old burned bone and heated to a cherry red, then removed, covered with slacked lime, and allowed to cool very slowly.

Note. — Machine steel and wrought iron absorb carbon to a depth of about J" in 24 hours. Copper-plate such portions of work as are not to be case-hardened.

241. To anneal and reharden case-hardened work. — Treat the same as carbon steel, which will not affect the strength and ductility of its inner part.

242. Case-hardening with carbonizing gas produces rapidly a deep penetration without packing in bone, leather, etc. — The work is heated in a special revolving gas furnace to the desired temperature, about 1500^ F., and then the carbonizing gas is let into the furnace until the proper depth of carbonizing is obtained, which is about ^y^ in one hour, and i^ in 12 hours. The work is revolved during the process, thus insuring uniform carbonization. The control of the heating gas and carbonizing gas is positive. The carbonizing gas is derived from liquids in a special generator.

STRAIGHTENING HARDENED AND TEMPERED TOOLS. 97 243. To Btraighten hardened and tempered tools. Fig. 144.

— Straiqhtbnikq Hardened and Tempered Wori. SCHEDULE OF OPERATIONS.

Taps, reamers, drills, mandrels, gages, and work of that class, often spring in hardening and tempering and have to be straightened.

Example. — Movint hardened and tempered reamer A on centers B,B'of strfughteningpresaC Rotate with fingers, test with chalk, and not« eccentricity.

Place reamer on supports D, ly with eccentric side up, and heat at most eccentric part E with blowpipe F.

Apply pressure with screw G operated by handle H to force

reamer straight or slightly beyond straight as it may spring back some, then cool under tension with water from cup J or wet waste. Agiun test on centers, and repeat process if needed until reamer is true within grinding limit.

Caution. — To avoid dramng the temper while heating, test te mperature occaaonally by touching reamer with soft solder K. (Soft solder melts at 370° F.) If the solder melts readily, cool with water, for the temperature must not exceed 430° F.

Attention. — Large lots of tools of the above classes may be straightened rapidly by heating in an oil-tempering gas furnace to a temperature from 350° to 400° F. ' This temperature is not high enough to draw the temper, but is high enough to permit the work to be easily and safely straightened in a press.

98 ELEMENTS OF MACHINE WORK.

Attention. — If hardened steel is heated higher than 630° F., the effect of the hardening process is destroyed.

Note. — Some tools, as gages, scrapers, etc., are hardened outright and not tempered, and may or may not be slightly heated to relieve internal strains.

TESTING HARDNESS WITH SCLEROSCOPE.

244. The scleroscope, Fig. 145, is an instrument to measure or test the hardness of metals, as carbon steel, high-speed steel, machine steel, wrought iron, cast iron compositions, brass, copper, and lead. It will detect the slightest difference in hardened steel, a most important factor in tool-making.

The hardness of materials for machine construction may be predetermined and hard material annealed or discarded before attempting to inachine the same, thereby avoiding waste and permitting time estimates of machining work to be more accurately made.

A matter of great value in designing and constructing machinery is to know in advance the comparative wear of the different materials, and the scleroscope will enable one to construct each part of a material which possesses the precise degree of hardness to give uniform wear.

246. Scleroscope principle. — The principle of the scleroscope consists of dropping a tiny (about 40 grains) hardened steel jjewel (diamond) pointed plunger hammer from a height of about ten inches onto the surface of the material to be tested, which it penetrates slightly, and reading on the scale the height of its rebound, which varies on metals of different hardness. As the area of the jewel point is very small, about ^ diameter, the pressure on hard steel would approach 500,000 pounds per square inch, which exceeds the elastic limit of the hardest steel.

The scale is divided into 140 equal parts. High-carbon steel hardened outright will vary from 90 to 110 but will average about 100 on the scale, and other metals may be considered as so many per cent as hard as hardened steel.

TESTING HARDNESS.

SCLEROSCOPE SCALE OF HARDNESS.

Name of Metal.

Annealed.

Uamhebed.

47

35-45

35-40

30-35

30-45

31

22

18

10

10-15

e

8 8 7-35

?

5 4-9

2-5

Si

3-7

Atlerdion. — These figures are subject to variations owing to the varying composition or compresdon treatment of metals. Porcelain gives 120 and glass 130.

246. To measure hardness of millmg cutter. Fig. 145.

100

ELEMENTS OF MACHINE WORK.

SCHEDULE OF OPERATIONS.

Set scleroscope plumb by rod 1 and thumb screws 3,3'.

Press and suddenly release bulb 3 to draw hammer 4 through glass tube 5 to starting point at top 6, where the catch mechanism engages groove in hammer and retains it.

Raise clamp 7 by lever 8 and insert milling cutter 9 to be tested. If lever 8 is not nearly horizontal, release it by latch 10 and set it horizontal.

With right hand hold bulb 11 and press on lever 8 to hold cutter firmly.

With left thumb press valve

hook 12 to open tube to avoid vacuum when hammer descends; then press bulb 11 to release hammer, and note approximate height on scale to which top of hammer 4 rebounds, as 95 in detail cut.

Move work so that hammer may not strike twice in same spot, and repeat.

Knowing approximate rebound of hammer, the second or third test may be read accurately.

The reading lense and needle 13 maybe moved to any part of scale, and is only used where it is necessary to read slight differences.

Attention. — Work to be tested in this manner must be flat, parallel, and free from scale.

247. Plaster mount. — Pieces made in odd-shapes with smooth side up, may be pressed and leveled in plaster dish 14 by clamp and lever and then tested.

248. Magnifier hammer. — As the rebound of the jeweled hammer on soft metals is small, magnifier hammer 16 with large point area which rebounds higher, may be used to magnify variations in hardness of soft metals.

249. The swinging arm. — The scleroscope may be detached from its regular frame by screw 16 and placed on swinging arm post 17 to test work held level in vise or on surface plate. A drill may be tested by grinding a little fiat on its point and clamping upright in vise.

• _^- » O O 9

,,«••• • ••

• ••••••• ••••

••••• •• •

/ • .*. :*• :•

••• •••• •-••

••• • • •••..•

CASE-HARDENING. 101

260. To test large work freehand. — Detach instrument from its dovetail block by knob 18 and clamp in its place finger ring 19. With thumb of right hand in ring, index finger on valve hook and left hand to operate bulbs, the instrument may be carried about to test large castings or attached parts of machines. See File Test for Hardness, § 196. See File Test for Temper, § 201.

• ••

I •••

• • • •

• • « • •• • •>

••

• • - • 1 • • •

.'••.::• :.....

••

■ • • • • • •

CHAPTER VII.

CUTTING OFF STOCK, HAND AND MACHINE METHODS.

261. Hand hack saw, Fig. 146, is composed of frame A and blade B, It is operated similarly to a file, relieving the pres

CUTTINO STROKE

Fig. 146. — Sawing Metal with Hand Hack Saw.

sure on the return stroke. The teeth point forward as at B. It is used dry for cutting off unhardened metal, slotting screw heads, and work of similar nature.

The frame is adjustable to take different lengths of blades, and may be set at right angles to blade to cut close to shoulder. For ordinary work, blades having 14 teeth to the inch are used; for tubing or sheet metal, 24 teeth.

Blades of different widths are obtainable for slotting screws.

262. Power hack saw — Draw stroke, Fig. 147, is arranged for cutting stock A, held in vise B, which is clamped by screw and lever C. Stock stop D is used when duplicating lengths. The stroke may be increased or decreased by moving crank pin E from or to center of crank F, Pressure on blade is increased or decreased by. moving weight G along bar H. This machine cuts on the draw stroke as shown by arrow.

102

I'OWBR HACK SAW.

— 8*wiNO Metal with Power Hack Saw.

ELEMENTS OF MACHINE WORK.

253. To cut ofE stock in power cutting-oS machine — Electric drive. Fig. 14S.

CUTTING-OFF MACHINES.

SCHEDULE OF OPERATIONS.

Two tools A, B operate at once to cut off stock C held in chuck D. Tool B is ground V-shape to separate center of stock in advance of tooM, whichis ground square. Machine is driven by electric motor E, a pinion on motor shaft meshing with large spur gear F on mtun spindle of machine. Long, feed is operated by handle G and hand cross feed by handle H. Power cross feed is operated by pulley K driven from main spindle by belt L. Cone pulley M drives feed shaft cone pulley N by belt P, Splined worm Q on feed shaft R drives worm wheel 5

and cross feed screw T. Power cross feed is obtmned by lifting feed shaft R to engage worm Q with worm gear 5, and terminated by setting stop rod U to trip latch V, relea^ng worm from gear. To duplicate lengths, measure first piece with rule, then set stop W to end of work. Swing away as shown, and return for each new piece. Oil is supplied from pipe X.

Attention. — This machine is arranged to automatically maintain uniform cutting speed by graduaUy increasing revolutions of work as tool approaches center.

264. Metal saw cutting - off machine. — In Fig.

149 is shown a machine supplied with automatic feed, for cutting off stock of any shape to required lengths. Stock A is clamped in shoe B by screw C, and cut off automatically by saw D. Duplicates are obtained by setting gage E to required length.

— Metal Saw Cviting-off Machine.

CHAPTER VIII.

PIPE AND PIPE FITTINGS.

256. Steel and wrought-iroa pipe, Fig. 150, are made in iron

pipe sizes, and designated by the nominal inside diameter

Fia. 160. — SriWDABD Steel and Whouqht-Iros Pipe. (I. D.) which is approximate only; for example, the actual ineide diameter of a 1" pipe is 1.048", and i" pipe is 0.623", Fig. 151- This pipe is used for steam, water, gas, air, railings, etc.

Fig. 151. — One-Hai-f Fio. 152. — S. * W. I.

Inch Steel and Pipe, Two Inches

Wrouoht-Ihon Pipe, and Under, Butt FuLt, Size. Welded.

■lo. 153. — S. & W. I. Pipe over Two Inches, Laf^Welded.

Steel and wrought-iron pipe 2" and under are butt^welded, Fig. 152; over 2", lap-welded, Fig. 153; and are made in three thicknesses, Fig. 154.

OD

Standard Pipe. Extra Strong. Double-extra Strong.

Fio. 164. — Comparative Thickness op One-Half Inch S. & W. I. Pipe, ■Full Size.

PIPE AND TUBING. 107

The working pressures are as follows :

Standard: steam, about 100 pounds; water (hydraulic), 200 pounds per square inch.

Extra strong (thickness about 1 J times standard): steam 200 pounds; water, 400 pounds. Also used for ammonia.

Double-extra strong (thickness two times extra strong): water, 6000 pounds.

The extra thickness is inside of pipe so that standard dies and taps can be used.

Pipe is obtained in random lengths (usually from 16 to 20 feet), both ends threaded and one end supplied with a wrought-iron coupling (Fig. 150). Extra and double-extra strong have plain ends unless specified.

266. Galvanized steel and wrought-iron pipe and fittings (obtained by dipping in a bath of molten zinc) are largely used for cold water to avoid rust or corrosion. Steel rusts more quickly than wrought iron.

267. Lead and tin-lined iron and steel pipe and fittings, Fig. 155, are considerably used in waterworks service for acids,

Fio. 155. — Lead or Tin-Lined Iron Pipe.

chemicals, salt water, salt wells, and for all corrosive liquids which eat out iron pipe.

268. Electric conduits or tubes. — To protect electric wires and cables from mechanical injury and moisture, enameled or

Fig. 156. — Enameled Conduit Steel Pipe for Electric Wires and Cables.

asphalted (tarred) steel tubes,' or pipe. Fig. 156, and fittings are used. They are made to correspond with iron pipe sizes and iron pipe fittings.

108 ELEMENTS OF MACHINE WORK.

259. Pipe threads are V-shaped and have an angle of 60°.

260. Pipe threads are tapered to enable the joints to be screwed tight. The taper is f" per foot for all sizes to 8"; J per foot above 8".

261. Pipe taps are made solid for hand tapping, and automatic adjustable Collapsing for machine tapping.

263. Pipe fittings are used to connect pipe lengths, to reduce sizes, and to branch off in different directions. They are obtainable in cast iron and malleable iron, tapped ready for use. Cast-iron and malleable fittings are tapped the same taper as pipe thread; wrought-iron couplings are tapped straight and they stretch to fit taper pipe thread. Extra heavy fittings, to correspond to the extra strong pipe and steel fittings for double-extra strong, are obtainable.

264. A regular fitting is tapped the same size at both ends. as 1 in chart. Fig. 166, and connects pipe of same size.

265. A reducing fitting is tapped a different lize at each end, as 2 in chart. Fig. 166, and connects different sizes of pipe.

266. Right and left fittings. — Both ends of a fitting have a right thread unless ribbed like right and left coupling 3 in chart. Fig. 166, to indicate that one end has left thread; or one end is ribbed like right and left elbow 6 in chart. Fig. 166, to indicate left end. Right and left return bends may or may not be ribbed.

Attention. — Instead of ribs, some makes of left fittings have a raised L.

267. Lubricants for cutting off and threading pipe and tapping fittings. — Lard oil is used in cutting off and threading steel and wrought-iron pipe and in tapping cast-iron and malleable-iron fittings.

A mixture of lard oil and graphite is used for cutting off and threading brass pipe and tubing (drawn or rolled brass) ; brass fittings (cast brass) are tapped dry; lard oil, or milk, is used for cutting off and threading copper pipe; bronze fittings (cast) are tapped dry.

PIPE AND TUBING. 109

268. Pipe-joint cement. — A tight screwed joint is made between a pipe and a pipe fitting of any metal by applying to the thread a mixture of red and white lead and sperm or lard oil, or graphite paint, or tallow, which is both a lubricant and a packing, and screwing the joint tight.

Attention, — A joint will stand a higher test if the cement is allowed to dry before applying pressure.

269. Brass, copper, and bronze pipe or tubes (seamless drawn ) , Fig. 157, are obtainable in iron pipe sizes, Fig. 158, plumbers' sizes, for fine threads. Fig. 159 (see § 270), and in round tubes

Fia. 157. — Brass, Copper and Bronze Fig. 158. — One-Half Inch Brass Tubes, Seamless Drawn. Pipe Iron Size, Full Size.

only, of various inside and outside diameters, with light, medium, and heavy walls. Such pipes have a wide use for steam, hot and cold water plumbing, coils, heaters, stills, pneumatic tubes, steam chimes, musical instruments, stationary locomotive and marine boiler trimmings, condensers, railings, and in distilleries, alcohol plants,sugar refineries, etc., and where either special service or ornamentation, or both, are desired.

The fittings for brass pipe are cast brass and for copper pipe cast bronze, in the beaded or regular patterns, and are tapped same taper as pipe thread. The pipe is usually supplied unthreaded, and for very nice work the pipe and fittings are nickel plated.

Attention. — Steel, wrought-iron, and brass pipe are threaded with any type of a pipe die, but to thread copper pipe a type of die that will open and can be removed without backing off is used to avoid stripping the thread.

270. Brass pipe, iron pipe size, will sustain a working pressure (steam) about 250 pounds, water (hydraulic) about 500 pounds per square inch.

110

ELEMENTS OF MACHINE WORK.

Brass tubing (brazed) is obtainable in round, square, and rope shapes, and is used for various mechanical purposes, as the ornamental parts of electric and gas fixtures, railings and foot rests for automobiles, bedsteads, ferrules, etc. Taps and dies are straight threaded with 27 threads. Brazed steel tubing is also obtainable.

Thin coppertubes are usually made with flanged ends and bent to conform to wooden patterns, and used for steam or other purposes where weight is objectionable, as in small boats, ships, etc. The thickness of tubing is measured with a special micrometer.

271. Brass and copper pipe, and fittings plumbers' sizes are designated by their outside diameter the same as all tubing; that is, a |" plumbers' brass pipe is f" outside diameter and about f " inside diameter. (Fi^. 159.)

The fittings are tapped out and the pipe threaded with the brass or fine thread taps and dies according to the sizes and threads given in the following table.

Taper of taps and dies is f " per foot

Fig. 159. — ThreeQuARTER Inch Brass Pipe Plumbers' Size, Full Size.

A TABLE OF SIZES AND THREADS OF PLUMBERS' SIZES OR FINE-THREAD TAPS AND DIES.

Diameter of Tap

No. OF

Diameter of Tap

No. of

or Die.

OR Die.

i

28

U

18

f

28

H

18

i

28

If

18

f

20

2

16

f

20

2i

16

i

18

2i

16

1

18

The working pressure of plumbers' size brass pipe is about 100 pounds (water) per square inch.

PIPE AND TUBING.

Ill

SEAMLESS DRAWN BRASS PLUMBING TUBES.

Outside Diameter.

Inches.

Thickness Stubs' Wire Gage.

About Weight PER Running Foot. Pounds.

Outside Diameter.

Inches.

Thickness

BY Stubs'

Wire

Gage.

About Weight PER Running Foot. Pounds.

f

1

No. 15 No. 15 No. 15 No. 14

.46 .56 .67

.88

H

If 2

No. 13 No. 13

No. 13 No. 13

1.27 1.55

1.82 2.10

272. Nickel-plated tubes (seamless brass), Fig. 160, are used for open plumbing (drainage). They are obtainable in sizes IJ", 1 J", and 2" (O.D.). The threads have a taper of ^V" to 1", and the thickness by B. and S., No. 19 gage for all sizes .03589". For fittings see Chart of Pipe Fittings, Fig. 167, Nos. 54 and 55, and for pipe tools see Chart of Pipe Tools, Fig. 169, Nos. 44, 45, and 46.

Fig. 160.— Three-Quarter Inch Nickel Plated Tubing, Full Size.

Fig. 161. — Cast-Iron Flanged Pipe.

273. Cast-iron pipe, Fig. 161, with flanged ends and fittings 4" to 30", is obtainable for steam, water, etc.

Y BRANCH

WIPED JOINT

SOLDERING NIPPLE

BRASS

Fig. 162. — Cast-Iron Soil Pipe with Lead Connection.

274. Cast-iron drain pipe (soil pipe). Fig. 162, is used for drainage. It comes light and heavy. Each length is fur

112 ELEMENTS OF MACHINE WORK.

nished with one hub, although lengths with two hubs are obtainable. It is connected by inserting spigot end in hub, then calking with oakum (tarred hemp) and pouring in hot lead, after which it is calked to make tight. When joints are made horizontal, an asbestos runner or rope covered with clay is used to form mold. Water and gas supply mains are joined in a similar manner but the pipe is heavier.

276. Lead-pipe or block-tin pipe (seamless) is used for water, soda, and other liquids.

276. Lead-pipe joints are cupped and soldered (wiped) with plumbers' solder, and are called wiped joints. Flange couplings are obtainable for lead pipe. As a substitute for elbows, the pipe is bent.

277. Tin-pipe joints are cupped and soldered with fine solder and soldering iron, and are known as cupped joints.

278. Aliuniniiun pipe and fittings (cast) are made from patterns with flanged ends.

279. Packings for unions, piston rods, cylinder heads, etc. — For cast iron and malleable unions, cylinder heads, steam chests, etc., washer or gasket packings are used.

For low-pressure steam, red sheet rubber with or without pipe-joint cement is used.

Circular gaskets of sheet rubber may be lined out with dividers and cut with a knife. To line out other shapes such as gaskets for steam chests of pumps and engines, place sheet of rubber on chest and with light blows go around edges with face of hammer and holes with ball peen.

Note. — Narrow gaskets inside of bolt holes are often sufiicient.

For high-pressure steam, metalUc sheet packing or asbestos with wire insertion is used.

For cold water, leather, dry, or with cement.

For hot water, vulcanized rubber or red rubber.

For gas, vulcanized rubber or red-lead putty.

For gasolene, asbestos alone or with wire or sheet copper insertion.

For oil and ammonia. — White sheet rubber alone or with wire insertion, with or without cement.

PI?E AND TUBING. 113

For cold-water faucets, leather washers.

For hot-water faucets, fiber washers.

For piston rods and valve stems, soft packings in rings, spirals, and coils are obtainable made of flax, lubricated with tallow, graphite, or other anti-friction compounds, or rubber with cloth insertion, or molded asbestos rings.

For gas engine valve rods, asbestos wicking.

For hydraulic pistons, leather rings U-shaped in section are used, also cotton ducking, round or square.

Metal packings. — Where soft packings are undesirable, ground joints are used in cylinder heads, steam chests, unions, etc., without packing or cement.

For rough flanges, corrugated copper gaskets are used.

For piston rods, metal packings are used composed of soft metal parts overlapping each other and held in place by springs.

For calking tanks, etc., oakum (hemp) or jute is used.

For connecting special fitting to slate or soapstone, ure litharge mixed with linseed oil.

TABLE OF PIPE EQUIVALENTS.

Main Branch.

1 in. will supply. . two f in. li in. will supply. . two i in. 1^ in. will supply, .two 1^ in.

2 in. will supply. . two 1^ in.

2^ in. will supply. . two 1^ in. and one IJ in., or one 2 in. and one li in.

3 in. will supply. . one 2^ in. and one 2 in., or two 2 in. and one 1^ in. 3^ in. will supply. . two 2^ in. or one 3 in. and one 2 in., or three 2 in.

4 in. will supply. . one 3^ in. and one 2^ in., or two 3 in. and four 2 in. 4^ in. will supply. . one 3^ in. and one 3 in., or one 4 in. and one 2^ in.

5 in. will supply. . one 4 in. and one 3 in., or one 4^ in. and one 2^ in.

6 in. will supply, .two 4 in. and one 3 in., or four 3 in., or ten 2 in.

7 in. will supply. . one 6 in. and one 4 in., or three 4 in. and one 2 in.

8 in. will supply, .two 6 in. and one 5 in., or five 4 in. and two 2 in.

280. Steel tubes (seamless drawn), Fig. 163, are obtainable in iron pipe sizes and in hundreds of different sizes (O.D.) from .025" in diameter and .009" wall to 20" diameter and 1" wall (thickness by Stubs' or Birmingham wire gage), and in round, half-round, square, and oval shapes. Fig. 164 shows a J" tube full size.

114 ELEMENTS OF MACHINE WORK.

They have a wide use in manufacturing and engineering, in automobile axles, running gears, cylindrical and tubular ball and roller bearings, steering rods, tubular spokes and hubs, boiler tubes, bicycle frames and forks, handle bars.

Fig. 163. — Steel Tubes, Fig. 164. — One Half Inch Steel Seamless Drawn. Seamless Tube Full Size.

saddle posts, pumps, sulkies, hydraulic and pneumatic tubes, rings in ring spinning and twisting frames, spindles, rolls, bolsters, shafting, piston rods, piston chucks, bushings, sleeves, die-stock handles, pneumatic tools, washers, printingpress rolls, agricultural harvesting and ice machinery, laundry mangle rolls, mandrels for rubber tires and hose, cream separator bowls, frames of surgical operating tables, dental engines, instrument cases, bookcases, chairs, tables, fishing and umbrella rods, canes, display frames, magazine rifles, air guns, toy pistols, masts, signal and trolley poles and flagstaffs, hand railings, etc.

They are obtained in three anneals, — hard, stiff (cannot be bent) ; medium, tough (can be bent slightly) ; soft, ductile and pliable (suitable for bending or forming into special shapes).

Small machine parts can be readily made by using tubing slightly over-size, then grinding or machining to size. The

parts may or may not be case-hardened. Joints are made by brazing, threading, flanging, expanding, beading, and Fig. 165.— Nickel Tubes, by shrink, force, drive, sliding, or push

Seamless Drawn. n.

281. Nickel tubes. Fig. 165 (seamless drawn; an alloy of nickel and copper), are obtainable in all regular sizes (O.D.) with thickness by Stubs or Birmingham gage. They are obtainable in all iron pipe sizes (I.D.) with fittings of the same metal.

PIPE AND TUBING.

115

The non-corrosive and polishing qualities of solid nickel tubing make it superior to plated tubing for many purposes. It is used for railings, coolers, exposed plumbing in public buildings, fine residences, clubs, and theaters, condenser tubes in transAtlantic liners, men-of-war, yachts, etc.

282. Tables of pipe^ measurements. — The table below is useful to the beginner in pipe fitting. As shown in the table, custom has established a particular length of screwed end for each different diameter of pipe. The slight variation that is sometimes found in pipe dies, and the slight variation sometimes found in pipe fittings, may make it necessary to run the die on the pipe a little more or less than that recommended in the table. Again, very frequently one must drill or bore a hole to be tapped with a pipe tap, and the second column in the table gives the practical root diameter of pipe tap.

A WORKING TABLE OF IRON PIPE SIZES— BRIGGS'

STANDARD.

/v

Nomina Tj

DiA. OP

Pipe.

Tap

Drill or

Bore.

Length

OP

r

a

27

A

i

18

f

f

il

18

A

i

II

14

i

f

a

14

A

1

lA

IH

f

u

1*5

IH

H

H

m

IH

a

2

2A

IH

i

2i

2f

8

1

3

3i

8

1

3*

31

8

lA

4

4i

8

U

4*

4|

8

H

5

5A

8

U

6

6A

8

If

7

7f .

8

H

8

8f

8

If

9

9A

8

i«

10

lOjf

8

If

116

ELEMENTS OF MACHINE WORK

TABLE OF DIMENSIONS OF STANDARD WEIGHT WROUGHT-IRON PIPE — BRIGGS' STANDARD.

1^ and Smaller Proved to 300 Lbs. per Square Inch by Hydraulic Pressure. 1^ and Larger Proved to 500 Lbs. per Square Inch by Hydraulic Pressure.

u

9

«

«  "d •«

Actual Outside Diameter.

Thickness.

Actual Inside Diameter.

Inside Circumference.

Outside Circumference.

Length of Pipe per Souare Foot of Inside Surface.

Length of Pipe per Square Foot of Outside Surface.

<

9

"d 1

<

9

09

S

O

Length of Pipe containing one Cubic Foot.

1

9

a

-a

No. of Threads per Inch of Screw.

Taper of Threads per Inch of Screw.

In.

In.

In.

In.

In.

In.

Ft.

Ft.

In.

In.

Ft.

Lbs.

In.

i

0.405

0.068

0.270

0.848

1.272

14.15

9.44

0.0572

0.129

2500.

0.243

27

^

i

0.54

0.088

0.364

1.144

1.696

10.50

7.075

0.1041

0.229

1385.

0.422

18

^

1

0.675

0.091

0.494

1.552

2.121

7.67

5.657

0.1916

0.358

751.5

0.561

18

A

i

0.84

0.109

0.623

1.957

2.652

6.13

4.502

0.3048

0.554

472.4

0.845

14

^

i

1.05

0.113

0.824

2.589

3.299

4.635

3.637

0.5333

0.866

270.

1.126

14

A

1

1.315

0.134

1.048

3.292

4.134

3.679

2.903

0.8627

1.357

166.9

1.670

11*

A

li

1.66

0.140

1.380

4.335

5.215

2.768

2.301

1.496

2.164

96.25

2.258

IH

A

n

1.90

0.145

1.611

5.061

5.969

2.371

2.01

2.038

2.835

70.65

2.694

IH

A

2

2.375

0.154

2.067

6.494

7.461

1.848

1.611

3.355

4.430

42.36

3.600

IH

A

H

2.875

0.204

2.468

7.754

9.032

1.547

1.328

4.783

6.491

30.11

5.773

8

A

8

3.50

0.217

3.067

9.636

10.996

1.245

1.091

7.388

9.621

19.49

7.547

8

A

H

4.00

0.226

3.548

11.146

12.566

1.077

0.955

9.887

12.566

14.56

9.055

8

A

4

4,50

0.237

4.026

12.648

14.137

0.949

0.849

12.730

15.904

11.31

10.66

8

A

a

5.00

0.247

4.508

14.153

15.708

0.848

0.765

15.939

19.635

9.03

12.34

8

A

6

5.563

0.259

5.045

15.849

17.475

0.757

0.629

19.990

24.299

7.20

14.50

8

A

6.625

0.280

6.065

19. OM

20.813

0.63

0.577

28.889

34.471

4.98

18.767

8

A

7

7.625

0.301

7.023

22.063

23.954

0.544

0.595

38.737

45.663

3.72

23.27

8

A

8

S.625

0.322

7.982

25.076

27.096

0.478

0.444

50.039

58.426

2.88

28.177

8

A

9

9.625

0.344

9.001

28.277

30.433

0.425

0.394

63.633

73.715

2.26

33.70

8

A

10

10.75

0.366

10.019

31.476

33.772

0.381

0.355

78.838

90.762

1.80

40.06

8

A

11

12.00

0.375

11.25

35.343

37.699

0.340

0.318

98.942

113.097

1.455

45.95

8

A

12

12.75

0.375

12.000

38.264

40.840

0.313

0.293

116.535

132.732

1.235

48.98

8

14.00

0.375

13.25

41.268

43.982

0.290

0.273

134.582

153.938

1.069

53.92

8

15.00

0.375

14.25

44.271

47.124

0.271

0.254

155.968

176.715

.923

57.89

8

A

16.00

0.375

15.25

47.274

50.265

0.254

0.238

177.867

201.062

.809

81.77

8

A

17.00 18.00

0.375 0.375

16.25 17.25

51.05 53.281

53.40

56.548

0.225

0.212

225.907

254.469

.638

69.66

20.00

0.375

19.25

59.288

62.832

0.202

0.191

279.720

314.160

.515

77.57

21.00 22.00

0.375 0.375

20.25 21.25

63.61 66.759

65.97 69.115

0.179

0.174

354.66

380.134

.406

85.47

24.00

0.375

23.25

73.04

75.39

0.164

0.159

424.56

452.39

.339

93.37

PIPE AND TUBraO.

1

1 ^

2^

j

|l

OS 11

iis

Iq

i

z

-;

In. 1 i

t. I

t.

8q In.

Sq In.

In.

IQ.

In. I

Lh»,'

.20

.40

04

1.27 1 It

63

43

03

12

.28

07

06

12 1

07 S

13

35

M

84

70

63 7

04 4

M

1.09

05

1.S3

95

18 2

90

71

35

27

96

10 3

90

21 :

00 2

30

a?

10

49

00

22 S

07

46 1

97 1

60

2

03

43

3.63

ai

S7

28 7

27

03 1

32

20

649

7,S7

8a

32 1

00

10.25

35

32 10

H

12

56 1

13

95

8B

12 60

81

»

34 11

00

13 1

00

84

15 90

14 97

76

81

5*

37 15

12

17

47

79

68

18

10

24.30

20. S4

7B

62

43 18

06

20

81

06

57

25

93

3147

28 58

HI 20

37.60

02

62

M 23

58

27

10

51

44

44

18

58.42

47.85

I

23 1

17

22

73

2

12 18

09 1 5

65

.04

36

.90

1

24

29

M

I

42 1

80

2.30

58 1

36

13 6

SO 2

90

,27

35

3.40

u

88 1

«e

38

78

21 4

30

U 1

08 1

90

61 2

6.45

49 2

37

44

68

46 2

60 1

00

1.74

9.00

2i 1

76 2

87

56

32

99 1

87 1

00

9

62

18,50

» 2

71 4

00

M

S3

12

56 1

40

95

6.79

12

M

22 00

4 3

50

«8

84

90

41 3

DO

05

32.45

i 4

06 5

50

75

12

76

17

47

04

06

12.00

24

30

6 4

87 <

20

81

67

S3.1!

23 95 1

62

60

45

60.34

8 6

88 S

62

87

21.01

27.10 1

60

44

37.17

58

43

71 52

118

ELEMENTS OF MACHINE WORK

IRON PIPE SIZES OF SEAMLESS DRAWN BRASS AND

COPPER TUBES.

Iron

Inside

Outside

Length

mate

per

rass.

Iron

Inside

Outside

Length

mate per

rass.

Pipe Size.

Diameter.

Diam. eter.

Approxi Weight Foot, B

Pipe Size.

Diameter.

Diameter.

Approxi Weight Foot, B

.27

M

12

.25

2i

2.46

21

12

5.75

.36

A

12

.43

3

3.06

3i

12

8.30

.49

H

12

.62

Zi

3.50

4

12

10.90

.62

n

12

.92

4

4.02

4i

12

12.70

.82

lA

12

1.25

5

5.04

5.56

8 to 10

15.75

1

1.04

lA

12

1.70

6

6.06

6.62

6 to 8

18.31

u

1.38

1

12

2.50

7

7.02

7.62

Special

26.28

1^

1.61

1

12

3.00

8

7.98

8.62

Special

29.88

2

2.06

'i

12

4.00

TABLE OF OUTSIDE DIAMETERS AND THREADS PER INCH.

Size.

in., i in..

1 in., liin. l^in.

2 in.. 2^ in.

3 in..

I. P. T.

E. G. H. T.

Inches

Inches

1^ X 14

lA X14

lA xii

lA X IH

iM X 11

Iff X IH Iff X lU 2|i X IH

m X 11

m X 11

2M X 7i

2ii X8

3A X7

3V^ X8

3| X 7^

284. To identify pipe lines by color. — To avoid confusion, mistakes, and accidents in power plants, steam-heating systems, cold-storage plant, etc., labels are sometimes attached to the valves or the pipes painted in different colors; as, steam pipe, white; hot water, red; cold water, blue, etc.

PIPE FITTINGS.

286. Names and uses of pipe fittings in charts. Figs. 166 and 167.

Cast-irou fittings have heavy beads of rectangular section for strengthening the tapped parts, while malleable fittings have lighter brads of half-round section. In the charts the fittings illustrated are of the materials named, but are obtainable in other materials.

CHART OF PIPE FITTINGS

COUPLING

REDUCING OOUPUNO

R.4 L. COUPLING

ELBOW 90«»

REDUCING ELBOW

5

R.4L. ELBOW

UNION ELBOW

D CB o

TWIN ELBOW

8

fi^

4e»

ELBOW

9

TEE

10

REDUCING TEE

TIN LINCO

TIOHT JOINT TEE

12

CROSS

13

DOUBLE Y BRANCH

15

OFFSET

16

RETURN BEND

BRANCH TEE

17

^ ^

CEILING PLATE AND PIPE FLANGE

19

UNION

UNION

GROUND

FLANGED

JOINT

JCINT

UNION OOPPCR OAtKtT

20

21

9 O

BUSHING

23

FLUSH BUSHING

24

CLOSE NIPPLE

25

SPACE NIPPLE

26

R.4L. NIPPLE

27

HOSE NIPPLE

28

LOCK NUT JOINT

e ^

LOCK NUTS

30

TINNIOCOPPM

ECCENTRIC

REDUCING ECCENTRIC COUPLING BUSHING

31

PLUG FLUSH PLUG

33

34

CAP

35

HEX. CAP

36

WOOD

PIPE HANGER

HANGER ROLLS

38

WALL HANGERS

39

40

(

Fig. 166.

(119)

120

ELEMENTS OF MACHINE WORK.

Abbreviations.

W. I., Wrought Iron. Ck)p., Copper.

S., Steel. R., Right hand.

C. I., Cast Iron. L., Left Hand.

M. I., Malleable Iron. O. D., Outside Diameter.

B., Brass. I. D., Inside Diameter.

C. S., Carbon steel.

Brass fittings are obtainable in nearly all of the cast-iron and malleableiron patterns.

No.

Name.

Use.

1

Couplings, S. and W. I...

To connect pipe in a straight line.

2

Reducing coupling, M. I. .

To connect pipe of different sizes in a straight line.

3

R. and L. coupling, M. I..

To make a final connection between pipe in a straight line.

4

Elbow (90°), C. I

To connect pipe at right angles.

5

Reducing elbow, C. I. (lead lined).

To connect pipe of different sizes at right angles. For acids or chemicals is lead lined.

6

R. and L. elbow, (90®) C.I.

To make a final connection between pipe at right angles.

7

Union elbow, M. I. Also made witii outside thread on union end.

Same as No. 4 and No. 20 combined.

8

Twin elbow. C. I

To use in place of branch headers for steam and hot-water heating.

^k •• wA^ ^^^m^^^ WW m ^^ • ^fc • •■••••••

9

45° elbow, M. I. Also made 22|®.

To connect pipe at 45° or 22^°.

10

Tee, C. I

To connect a right-angle branch with main pipe.

11

Reducing tee, C. I. Tin lined.

To connect pipe of different sizes in straight line with right-angle branch. For acids or chemicals is tin lined.

12

Tight-joint Tee, C. I

To use where extra tight joints are required, as air, ammonia, etc. The channel is filled with lead which may be tightened with screw.

13

Cross, C. I

To connect pipe in four directions (90°) to each other.

PIPE FITTINGS.

121

No.

14 15

16

17

18 19

20

21

22

23

24

25

26 27

28

Y branch, M. I

Double Y branch, C. I.. . .

Offset, C. I

Return bend, R. and L., C I., close pattern. Also open pattern.

Branch Tee, C. I

a. Hinged floor or ceiling plate.

6. Pipe flange

Use.

Brass union (ground ball joint).

Flanged union, C. I. (gasket joint).

Bushing, M. I. or B.

Flush bushing, M. I., B., or C. I.

Close nipple, W. I., S., cast 'brass or brass pipe.

Space nipple, W. I. or S. .

R. and L. nipple, M. I (hex. center).

Hose nipple, B.

A 45° branch connection.

Two 45° branch connections (screwed joint drainage type).

A substitute for bending a pipe to form an offset.

To connect and return as in radiating coils. Left end also made ribbed.

A header for connecting several parallel pipes for steam heating.

To protect flooring or ceiling around pipe. Hinged or half plates may be put up after pipe is erected, solid plates before.

Unfinished, forcolunms.

For water. Same purpose as R. and L. fittings, but more convenient when pipe is occasionally disconnected. For steam obtain M. I. brass-lined and ground joint.

Same as 20 (water, steam, or gas), but more serviceable and ornamental. Used for boiler and engine fixtures on W. I. or S. or preferably brass pipe.

Same as 20, but for large pipe and where space is limited.

To connect pipe and fitting of different sizes. See Reducing fittings.

Same as 23, but where space is limited.

To connect two fittings closely.

Same as 25 but for fittings further apart.

Similar to R. and L. coupling but connects fittings instead of pipe.

To connect hose fittings to iron pipe sizes.

122

ELEMENTS OF MACHINE WORK.

No.

Name.

Use.

29

Lock nut joint, W. I

Connection between tanks or fixed piping (screwed joints).

30

Lock nut, M. I

To permit adjustment and to make a tight joint when pipe is screwed into thin plate. The nuts are grooved for wicking and pipe-joint cement. To connect pipe with bottom of tank, use lock nuts on both sides.

t

31

Eccentric reducing coupling, C. I.

To connect pipe of different sizes not in alinement.

32

Eccentric bushing, C. I. . .

To connect pipe and fitting of different sizes not in alinement. To drain radiators.

33

Plug, C. I. (square)

To close opening in fitting.

34

Flush plue, C. I

Same as 33, where space is limited.

To close end of pipe.

Same as 35 but allows for use of monkey wrench. Hose cap made same form.

35

Cap, M. I

36

37

Pipe hanger, M. I

To support a single pipe from ceiling or beam.

38

Hanger rolls, M. I

To support several pipes from ceiling, as a heating coil.

39

Wall hanger, single pipe . .

To support a single pipe on wall.

40

Wall hanser

To support several pipes on wall.

286. Nearly all valves except small sizes, under one inch, which are always brass, are obtainable in either brass or cast iron. Brass may be plain or nickel plated. All valves are made in three grades, standard, heavy, and extra heavy.

CHART OF PIPE FITTINGS CONTINUED

VALVBS * COCKS

QLOBB

CHECK VALVe

46

STEAM

QA8 TEE

57

OATS

CORNER

COCK

THREE WAY COCK

47

AMMONIA EXPANSION

ML.

49

UNION

HYDRAULIC

AIR VALVBS NICKBL PLATBD FITTINQS

HOT WATER AUTOMATIC SLIP JOINT SCREW UNIVERSAL

ELBOW JOINT TEE STEAM JOINT

52

53 ^ 54

56

DROP ELBOWS

QAS FITTINQS

SWINO JOINT BASE, PILLAR AND LAVA TIP

COOK AND SIDE NOZZLE OF BURNER

58

59

60

61 62 63,

64

«=4Q

Q 4> <a «^

RAILING FITTINQS

ELBOW TEE SIDE CROSS ELBOW PLANQBB

SIDE OUTLET TEE OUTLET

65 66 67 68 69 7Q 71

TEE ORNAMENT

72 73

DRIVBN * BORID WBLL FITTINQS

DRIVE POINT COUPLINQ CAP SHOE

74 75 76 77

SAND CHAMBER

78

w ^ 'v ^ ^ ^j m ^ w ^ m .

D

»

Fio. 167.

(128)

124

ELEMENTS OF MACHINE WORK.

No.

41 42

43

44

45 46

Name.

47

48

49

50

51 52 53

54

55 56

Globe valve, B. or C. I. . .

Gate valve (flange;, B. or CI.

Comer valve, B

Hot-water radiator valve with union, B.

Swing check valve, B. (horizontal) .

Cock, B. or C. I.

Three-way cock, B. or C. I

Use.

Ammonia expansion valve, M.I.

Hydraulic globe valve, B. or C. I. '

Air and steam valve, B . .

Air valve, B

Automatic air valve, B. . .

Double slip joint. Elbow, brass nickelplated.

Screw joint Tee. Brass nickel-plated.

Steam joint. Universal.

To shut ofif or control steam or water pressure.

Same as 41. Preferred for water. Pressure either direction.

Same as 41 but for steam radiators.

Same as 41 and 43 but to connect steam radiators in comers.

For hot-water heating. The union is easily connected or disconnected.

To prevent flow except in one direction. Used on pumps and boiler feed pipes.

The valves are also made to operate vertically.

A shut-off for steam, water, gas, etc. Preferred to a valve for boiler blow-off.

To change direction of flow of steam, oil, gas or water from one point to another. To exhaust steam from engine to condenser or atmosphere. A substitute for two valves.

For ammonia gas in refrigerating plants.

For high water pressure in hydraulic machinery.

To blow off air in radiators, etc.

Same as 51, for hot-water radiators.

Similar to a union for nickel-plated tubing. Used for drainage, etc.

For nickel-plated tubing. Sanitary pattern.

For connections requiring universal movement.

PIPE FITTINGS.

125

GAS FITTINGS, MALLEABLE IRON AND BRASS.

No.

Name.

Use.

57

Gas Tee. M. I

Same as 10 but for iras.

58

59 60 61

Drop elbow, M. I. Inside thread.

Drop elbow, M. I. Outside

thread. Swing joint with cock, B.

Side nozzle. B

Same as No. 4, but flanged to fasten to wall for gas connections.

To make close connection with swing joint

for wall bracket. To make wall bracket gas light with 59.

Burner connection.

62

Base, B

Part of burner.

63

Pillar, B

Part of burner.

64

Lava tip

Part of burner.

RAILING FITTINGS, MALLEABLE IRON OR POLISHED BRASS.

No.

Name.

Use.

65 66

< Elbow side outlet

Tee

To connect top rail and post at comer. To connect intermediate post and top rail. To connect intermediate post, top and

67

Tee. side outlet

68

Cross

cross rail, and for same purpose as 65 when ornament is used.

To connect rails and post and to connect

69

Elbow

top rail at intermediate post when ornament is used.

To connect top single rail and post.

To connect post or rail with floor or wall. Obtainable in different diameters to one size thread.

To connect angle rail with wall.

To connect post, horizontal and angle rail.

To ornament railings.

70

Flanees A. B

71

Anflrle flAncre , ^ . , . ^ . . ^ - . .

72 73

Adjustable angle fitting . . Ball ornament

126

ELEMENTS OF MACHINE WORK.

Attention. — In order to erect a railing two pipes high, the upper outlet of fittings used in lower pipes must have left-hand thread. As railing joints need not be steam or water tight, it is permissible, if necessary, to run a left tap into a right threaded fitting.

Note. — Railing fittings more ornamental than those in chart, and also brass and nickel-plated fittings, are obtainable.

FITTIN<5S FOR DRIVEN AND'l.BORED WELLS.

No.

Name.

Use.

74

75 76

Drive point, M. I. point, W. I. strainer.

Drive coupling, M. I

Drive Cap. M. I

For driven wells.

For driven and bored wells. For driven wells.

77

Drive shoe, S

For bored wells.

78

Sand chamber, copper or C. L

For bored wells. To separate and hold sand and protect pump valve.

PIPE TOOLS. 287. Names and uses of pipe tools in chart, Fig. 168.

Abbreviations . R., Right hand. N., Nickel.

L., Left hand. P., Plated.

Comb., Combination. T., Tubing.

C. S., Carbon steel.

No.

2 3

Name.

Solid pipe die. Iron pipe size. (C. S.) R. or L. thread.

Solid die. Fixed chasers.

Die stock. Guide bushing.

Use.

To hold solid dies. To facilitate starting dies 1^^ to 4*, die stock has threaded leader same pitch as die. Ratchet die stocks are used to thread large sizes and where space is limited.

Dies may be set to thread standard size or adjusted to provide for variation in fittings. Dies can be removed and ground at emery wheel or grindstone.

CHART OF PIPE TOOLS

II ll2

^ ®--« ^>L^ ^=0

19 20

. 22 23

xC^It

128

ELEMENTS OF MACHINE WORK.

No.

6

8

9

10

11 12

13 14

15

16

Cutting-off attachment for die stock.

Pipe tap. Taper f * to 1'. Iron pipe size. (C. S.) R. or L. thread.

Adjustable automatic collapsing pipe, tap R. or L.

Comb, drill and pipe tap. (C. S.)

Pipe reamer, fluted. Taper i" to I. (C. S.)

Pipe reamer or burr remover. (C. S.)

Pipe cutter wheel. (C. S.)

Pipe cutter. Single wheel.

Pipe cutter. Three wheels.

Use.

Chasers will thread wide range of sizes. One set (4) will thread pipe 1*, 1^^, 1^^, and 2* (11^ threads). When thread is cut die is opened and removed without backing ofiP.

A device to attach to stock No. 5 to cut ofif pipe by hand. Operate like lathe cutting-off tool.

To thread larger pipe than can be done with die and stock by hand. Has cutting-off attachment. Same can be operated by crank or by ratchet.

To thread and cut off large pipe or large lots of pipe of any size.

To tap a pipe thread in boiler, pipe fitting, or other apparatus to receive threaded pipe. Straight tubes are obtainable.

To thread pipe fittings, etc., by power used in special tapping machines or any turret head machine. Collapses automatically when thread is tapped and is with* drawn without reversing machine.

To ratchet drill and tap holes to receive threaded pipe. See Ratchet, No. 35.

To ream holes to proper taper before tapping. Thin plates may be tapped without reaming taper.

To remove burr from inside pipe made by pipe cutter.

This sharp-edged wheel forces the pipe off evenly all around. Strictly speaking, it does not cut it off.

Stock and cutter wheel. To cut pipe to lengths. It is placed on pipe, block screwed down, and handle moved forward in a circle.

To cut off pipe to lengths more rapidly than single wheel. Can be used where space is limited with strokes back and forth, and to cut off pipes in the thread.

PIPE TOOLS.

129

No

Name.

Use.

17

Ratchet pipe cutter

'I'o cut 6E pipe where space will not aUow ordinary pipe cutter to be rotated.

18

Hinged pipe vise, M. I. . .

To hold pipe to thread, cut off, make or unmake joints. Is bolted to bench or post.

19

Comb, pipe vise, C. I

Same as 18 and with plain jaws and fittings for rectangular work.

20

StiUson pipe wrench

To make or unmake screwed connections of pipe fittings. May also be used for bolts and rods.

21

Auto, pipe wrench

Same as 20, another type.

22

Chain pipe wrench

Same as 20, for large pipe and fittings.

23

Pipe tap wrench

To operate taps and reamers.

Same as 20, for very small pipe and gas connections.

24

Pipe pliers

25

Pipe toners

Same as 20; used for radiator coils where

26

Monkey wrench

For union, bolt and nut connections, etc.

27

Nipple holder. Commercial.

To hold nipple to thread blank end.

28

Same as 27; convenient for short or very large nipples, also to use in machines.

29

Pipe-bending form

To bend pipe to a desired shape. Forms to suit special cases may. be sawed out of wood. To bend pipe, fill with sand plug end, and bend cold or hot.

30

Flancre wrench •

To make up or take off flanges. Better than bar or bolt.

31

Pipe-joint cement or mixture.

To lubricate pipe thread and to make joints tight.

32

Oil can. Lard oil

To lubricate dies and cutting-off tools for wrought iron or steel pipe and taps for wrought iron, steel, cast and malleable iron. (See Brass pipe tools.)

288. Names and uses of pipe tools in chart, Fig. 169.

CHART OF PIPE TOOLS CONTINUED

PIPE TONQS

25

BENDING FORM

29

HALF RD. BSTD. FILE

33

MONKEY WRENCH

26

27 28

FLANQE WRENCH

"T

CLAMP

34

NIPPLE ^ NIPPLE

PIPE JOINT LARD OIL

CEMENT CAN

31

rf

RATCHET DRILL

35

PIPE TOOL CHEST

36

BRASS PIPB AND TUBINQ TOOLS

PLUMBERS' SIZE

DIE TAP

37 38

IXI

VISE

WRENCH

40

ROLLER PIPE CUTTER

COTTER WHEEL

HACK SAW

42

flE

SHEARS

43

TOOLS FOR NICKEL PLATKD TUBINQ

DIE DIE STOCK TAP

45 46

^-^^ fl

PLUMBERS^ TORCH

47

(130)

Fig. 169.

^^^^^^A-^

PIPE TOOLS.

131

No.

Name.

Use.

33 34

Half-round Bastard or 2d cut file (icr to 140.

Screw clamp

To mark ofif lengths by filing nicks in which to start wheels of pipe cutter. To remove burrs and for smoothing operations.

To hold pipe temporarily in position and for general purposes.

To drill holes in boiler, pipe or other apparatus to be tapped that cannot be brought conveniently to a drilling machine.

To keep safely and to ship pipe tools.

35

Ratchet drill

36

Pipe tool chest r - -

PLUMBERS' SIZES OR FINE THREAD PIPE TOOLS. Plumbers* Drawn Seamless Brass Pipe or Tubing is Measured at the Outside.

No.

Name.

Use.

37

Phimbers' size or thread die., (O. Taper i* to I.

fine D.).

To thread tubing. Fits iron pipe diestock No. 3.

38

Plumbers' size or fine thread tap, standard diameter. Taper f ^ to I-'.

39

Pipe vise with jaws to hold brass pipe.

To hold polished or nickel-plated pipe or tubing while threading or cutting ofif. For very nice work, line jaws with lead or use wooden jaws.

40

Brass-pipe wrench. .

To make or unmake screwed connections

of polished or nickel-plated pipe, tubing or fitting. For very nice work, line jaws with lead.

41

Roller pipe cutter. .

To cut ofif brass pipe or tubing. For very small pipe use hack saw.

42

Hack saw

To cut ofif brass pipe and tubing use saw with 22 teeth. For general purposes use saw with 14 teeth.

43

Shears

For cutting sheet metal , wire, etc.

132

ELEMENTS OF MACHINE WORK.

NICKEL-PLATED BRASS TUBING I TO 2" OUTSIDE DIAM ETER, 28 THREADS.

No.

Name.

Use.

44

Nickel-plated (braas) tubing die, 28 thread .s per inch. Taper ^^ to V.

45

N. P. T. die stock

To hold N. P. T. die.

46

N. P. T. tap, 28 threads. .

To tap N. P. T. thread in plates, fittings, etc.

47

Plumbers' torch, gasoline or kerosene.

To heat pipe to bend to form (see No. 29), for soldering, etc.

AUeniion. — Pipe dies and taps are designated by the nominal sizes of the pipes they are used upon, and not by their actual diameters. A 1" pipe, die or tap, is about \\' diameter which is the bore of the pipe plus twice the thickness of the pipe.

A ball-peen hammer is used to loosen fittings that they may be unscrewed easily, and to break off cast iron fittings when necessary.

HAND AND MACHINE METHODS OF PIPING.

289. Hand method of threading, cuttmg off pipe, and making up pipe joints. — One person can thread or cut off pipe by hand up to 1", and with an assistant and die stock with threaded leader up to 2". For larger sizes, a hand or power pipe-threading and cutting-off machine is needed.

SCHEDULE OF OPERATIONS.

Place f W.I. pipe A in pipe vise B, with end clear of bench C, and clamp pipe. Place f" R. H. solid die marked side up in front, and }' guide bushing in back of dieetoek D, and clamp. Remove burr from end of pipe with haltround file E.

Freely oil end of pipe with lard mI from can F. Place bushing end of dieetoek on pipe and start die. Stand well back, and with hands near the center of the stock, press hard on handles; atsametime rotate liandles to right through a quarter circle and cliange hands.

Attention.— ustable dies.

Large pipe is often See Nos. 4, 5, 6, 7,

Press hard and again rotate a quarter circle. Then move hands out as shown and occaaonally rotate backward slightly, to allow chips to drop, and continue forward and backward with less pressure, using plenty of lard oil through opening of die, until end of pipe is even with front of die. Remove diestock and try on fitting, which should go on at least three threads with the hand. To cut left-hand thread, place left-threaded die in diestock and turn handles to left.

ELEMENTS OF MACHINE WORK.

91. To make up screwed pipe joint. Hand methodFig. 171.

SCHEDULE OF OPERATIONS.

Place pipe A in swivel pipe viae B and thread. With brush or stick apply cement or pipe-joint mixture C to first three threads in fitting or on pipe. Screw elbow D on by hand and with Stillson pipe wrench E make joint tight. Then as a. matter of cleanliness, with waste G (or cloth) wipe all

sm-plus cement from pipe and fitting at H.

Attention. — The wrench may be held on fitting with left hand while operating handle with right.

NoU. — ViBe B ia a type of plain vise with heavily milled jaws of great gripping power and much used in commercial work.

To cut off pipe, hand method. Fig. 172.

135

SCHEDULE OF OPERATIONS.

Place pipe A in vise B so that desired length will clear end of bench C. Lay off length with rule D, and mark with file E. Place pipe cutter F on pipe so that wheel cutter G comes on mark. Drop lard oil on pipe and cutter, then press handle of pipe cutter downward.

At each revolution of cutter, move backward a little and rotate

handle to feed cutter inward proceeding thus until pipe is cut off. Reverse pipe in vise and thread blank end.

Attention, — In conunercial piping unnecessary handling of pipe is avoided by passing pipe through vise far enough to cut off desired length, and allow remainder to be threaded before laying away.

293. Problem in pipe fitting. Fig. 173. — Make up parts in alphabetical order, as A, S, C, and D. Measurements are taken

ECBOW

xRAL.

C.I. ELBOW

Fig. 173. — Schedule Drawing of Problem in Pipe Fitting.

from center of one fitting to the center of the next. To secure this, it is best, when possible, to make up tight each

136 ELEMENTS OF MACHINE WORK

successive pipe or fitting before attaching the next or cutting ' o£E pipe, for more accurate measurements may be thus obtained.

SCHEDULE OF OPERATIONS.

Place a I' pipe in vise and clamp. If not threaded, thread R. H. (width of die), (1).

With hand, screw right end of f" B. and L. C. I. elbow (2) on pipe and make tight with Stillson as in Rg. 171. Mark with file the distance fitting goes on, unscrew and measure this distance with wooden rule, (j* fitting may go on about is", and this information is necessary to know where to cut off pipe for the next fitting.) Then make up joint. A fitting adds to the length of a pipe, and the amount the pipe is screwed into the fitting is subtracted from length of pipe.

Select a f X i" C. I. reducing elbow and measure its effective length from face to center, as in Fig. 174. A i" elbow may be 1ft" in length. Pass pipe through vise and clamp. Measure off on pipe from center E 18" (distance from E to F), less lA", length of elbow, plus A', length

of thread, mark and cut off pipe Then thread R. H. (3), apply cement, screw on elbow (4) and make

up joint. Aline elbows and measure. If within A" of 18", it is good. It too long, die may be run on further. Part B is made up in order (6), (7), (6), (8), (9). Note how far i" pipe enters a fitting. Also measure length of elbow (9).

Cement all connections.

AUerUion. — In screwing up bushings it is best to make up the larger thread first to avoid splitting the bushing.

294. To make right and left connections. Fig. 173. — Right and left connections are here used on both sides on account of

137

the stiffness of short pipes. If problem called for long pipes, they would spring sufficiently to necessitate R. and L. connections on one side only.

SCHEDULE OF OPERATIONS.

Place parts A and B on bench with G, U^ centers 16" apart and parallel. Then measure for pipes C and D, allowing for threaded ends. Thread and cut required pipes, threading one end of each left hand.

Count Threads. — Screw pipe (10) by hand or wrench, into (7) without cement. Chalk line on pipe and fitting as at (5) and note number of turns it takes to unscrew pipe; repeat with left end (11), also (12) and (13).

If both right and left ends take same number of turns to make tight, both pipes may be coated with cement and started together. If, for example, right eiid (10)

takes 4 turns and left end (11) but 3 turns to make tight, start right end (10) one turn before left (11). Use same method with (12) and (13), then screw pipes alternately to make tight.

Dimensions should be correct within A"- To test joints, attach (14) to steam pipe with a pressure of 100 lbs. (or water 200 lbs.), and turn on pressure. If there is no leak, problem is finished and said to be steam tight. If leaks show at R. and L. joints, it means that R. and L. joints were not accurately counted, that is, that one joint did not makeup tight. Unscrew(lO), (11), (12), and (13) and count in again.

295. Pipe coils and bends. — Pipe coils of steel, wrought iron, brass, or copper pipe or tubing are used for heating, refrigerating, and condensing purposes. The large bends are used for high-pressure steam and exhaust piping.

Coils and bends are made cold or by heating and bending on special pipe-bending machines, as the electric welding and bending machine and hydraulic coiling and bending machine. If the radius is large compared with diameter, the pipe may be bent cold, but if radius is small, it is necessary to heat the pipe before bending.

ELEMENTS OF MACHINE WORK

296. To thread 3" pipe with hand pipe-threading machine, 1" to 4". Fig. 175.

SCHBDXJLE OF OPERATIONS.

Release acrewa B, B' and move Betting lever C until letters A A on machine coincide. Remove four dies (one is shown at D) and replace with 3' dies E. Move lever C until graduations § coincide, then lock acrews B, B'. Mount pipe F in chuck and clamp with wheel G. Throw in back gears H (for large pipe only); lubricate pipe and dies with lard oil. With lever C in ita notch move pipe to dies (to start thread only) with wheel J, and rotate crank handle K to thiread pipe. To release dies, throw lever C

againststoppin. Remove pipe and throw lever back in notch agmn to react dies to duplicate thread.

Note. — For pipe H' and less, use bushing h to steady dies.

Caylion. — Avoid backing dies off thread.

To cut off pipe wiik hand machine. — Release dies and clamp pipe in chuck lightly. Place pin M in hole N and bring guide jaws against pipe just back of dies to center, and hold pipe while cutting off; then clamp pipe in chuck hard. Move cutting-off tool (shown in detail at P) to pipe with

139

handle Q placed on star wheel R. Swing pawl 5 forward to obtain automatic star feed. Lubricate tool, and rotate crank handle K to cut off pipe.

Note. — The guide jaws are often used to steady pipe when threaxling.

This machine is also used for threading bolts and rods.

297. To thread 12" pipe with power pipe-threading machise 3" to 18", Fig. 176.

SCHEDULE OF OPERATIONS.

Remove chasers from die head 1 and replace with 12" die (8 chasers; one is shown at 2). Set (0) zero lines to cut 12" pipe on graduated scale back of die head as shown in detail at 3.

Clamp pipe 4 in chuck 5 (also in chuck 5' for long pipe). With , pilot wheel 6 move die head to pipe (to start thread only).

With shipper 7 start machine, lubricate pipe with lard oil from oil pump through pipe 8 and hold lever 9 down while threading. To terminate thread, release dies by throwing lever 9 up. Then stop machine and remove pipe.

Adjustments of .001" are obtained by hand nut 10.

To cut off -pipe. — Move pipe

140

ELEMENTS OF MACHINE WORK

out through die head, clamp in chuclcs S and 5' and steady with guides 11, 11'. Lubricate tool, start machine and cut oS pipe with tool 12 operated with hand wheel 13.

Various speeds are obtmned by a 3-Btep cone and back gears. These machines are often motor

driven. This machine is also used for threading bolts and rods.

AUenlion. — Kpe cutting-off machines are obt^nable which operate rolling cutters to cut off pipe similarly to hand pipe cutters.

Nipples are usually cut in machines. See nipple bolder in chart. Fig. 169.

298. To make up a large pipe joint by power. — To save labor, large pipe joints are often made up with power pipethreading maeiiines, as in Fig. 177.

Mount Tee A in chuck B. Lift pipe C with chain hoist D and start pipe into tee by hand. Hold pipe with chain tongs E with handle resting on floor. Start maeiiine with shipper F, and stop when joint is made up.

CHAPTER IX.

STRAIGHTEMIMG AHD BEMDIHG. PEEHraG AHD RIVETIIIG. HAHD DRILLIHG.

STRAIGHTENING AND BENDING.

299. To straighten or bend bars or sheets of metal. — Place

flat bar A, Fig. 178, concave side down and over square hole

in anvil B, straighten with the face (not the corner) of

hammer C. ™„t

Round bar A, Fig. 179, is placed concave side down on anvil B. Swage C is held on bar while a helper strikes swage with a sledge,

300. To test and straighten centered shafts in a lathe. — Unturned work that is centered is tested by rotating it in lathe and marking with chalk. For finished work, use copper tool held in tool post or a test indicator shown at A, Fig. 180.

Fia. 180. TeSTINQ and STBAIGHTENINa ShAPT IK Lathx.

142

ELEMENTS OF MACHINE WORK.

Shank B is held in tool post; the cross feed is fed inward until feeler C touches revolving shaft D, when pointer E will indicate error in thousandths of an inch. With piece F for fulcrum and bar G, the shaft is straightened. Sometimes it is necessary to peen shaft by a few light blows of hammer on upper side, struck while shaft is pressed upward.

301. Straightening press. Fig. 181. — If shaft A is centered, it is tested by mounting on centers B and B^; if not centered, it

Fig. 181. — Straightening Shaft with Straightening Press.

is tested by sighting along its length and marking with chalk or metal workers' crayon (soapstone). It is placed on supports C and C with its high side under screw D and pressure is applied with screw D and lever E,

PEENING AND RIVETING.

• 302. Peening metal. — To hammer one side in order to

stretch that side to straighten the work or to otherwise alter its shape: Work A, Fig. 182, is placed convex side down on anvil B and struck with the ball peen of hammer C. The blows should be quick and light to stretch the metal on one

Fig. 182. — Peening Work to Straighten.

side only. The metal will be stretched where the blows are struck, and if striking is continued over the whole surface, the concave side may be made equal in length to the convex side thus straightening the surface.

RIVETING.

143

303. Riveting. — Riveting is the process of fastening two or more pieces of metal together by means of a soft metal rod or wire having usually a head on one end. The rivet is passed through a hole in the work and its headless end is spread by hammering or peening until a second head is formed. The work may be done by a press, hammer or pneumatic riveter. The rivet may be headed hot or cold.

304. Copper rivets are often employed to fasten metal, leather, or other material together. The rivet is inserted, and usually a washer, called a burr, is put over the point, then the point is riveted with a hammer or preferably with a cupshaped tool.

305. Flush riveting. Fig. 183. — Countersink pieces A and B for soft-steel rivet C, as at D and D\ Upon anvil E with

• hammer F head rivet to fill countersinks. Strike with light

blows, principally near edge of rivet. Then file flush with work and polish.

WORK A I

HAMMER

•F

COUNTER- SINK

y///\y///////////////A

ANVIL

E

Fig. 183. — Riveting Plates.

HAMMER

r

^ COUNTER. C SINK

Fig. 184. — Riveting Crank Pin.

306. Riveting crank pin A, Fig. 184, to crank B, — Countersink hole C and hollow out pin as at D. Place head of pin on babbitt block B, with peen hammer ^ strike light quick blows equally around pin to draw it tight. Finish end of pin after riveting.

ELEMENTS OF MACHINE WORK.

HAND DRILLING.

307. Hand drilling machines are used in erecting or repairing machinery, to drill holes in the frame or other parts which cannot be conveniently taken to a power drilling machine, and when no portable power drilling machine, as a pneumatic or electrically driven hand drill, is at hand.

308. Breast drilling machine (breast drill), Fig. 186, b for

drilling small holes as clearly shown in the illustration.

Fig. 186. — Djhllwo v

SCHEDULE OF PRINCIPAL PARTS.

J -Spindle.

B— Breastplate to press on with body to 0ve feed.

C— Chuck; runs free on spindle.

D- Drill.

E— Driving crank.

F— Bevel gear fast to crank.

G— Bevel gear attached to chuck; runs free on spindle.

H— Idler gear.

AT— Handle to support and steady machine.

HAND DRILLING 145

309. Ratchet drilling machine (ratchet drill), Fig. 186, is for drilling larger holes.

FiQ. 186. — DniLUNQ WITH Ratchet Dhiluno Machine.

SCHEDULE OF PARTS AND OPERATIONS.

.^ -Flat ratchet drill.

B — Head with square tapered hole to hold drill.

C— Brace, located at will.

D — Work to be drilled ; locate and draw drill in uaual way.

E - Foot plate.

F— Clamp; use a bolt instead, if convenient.

G— Center; fits depression in underside of arm.

H—Aira fastened to brace by nut.

J —Handle to revolve drill part

of a stroke at a time by means of the ratchet mechanism.

iC-Pawl.

L— Ratchet wheel fast on head B.

Af— Threaded sleeve; to obtwn feed, keep sleeve from rotating by holding with the hand to feed.

JV— Hole to insert pin to hold sleeve to teed, it necessary, after drill is started.

P— Pawl, to reverse action of ratchet L.

Attention. — Instead of a flat drill, a square shank twist drill may be obtained, or a socket for regular taper and straight twist drills may be used.

CHAPTER X. SOLDERING. BRAZING. BABBITTING.

SOLDERING.

310. Soldering and brazing are processes for uniting metals by means of an alloy that melts at a lower temperature than the metals to be united.

311. Soldering is done with a fusible alloy of tin and lead, which melts at a low temperature, below 500°, and is used to unite surfaces of metals that are not subject to great stress or heat.

312. Soft solder consists of two parts of tin and one of lead, and melts at 340° F. A more fusible solder is made by adding bismuth. Tinsmiths use solder composed of one part tin and one of lead, which melts at 370° F.

313. Flux for soldering. — Parts to be soldered must be chemically clean; that is, all oxide must be removed from the surfaces to be united, by filing or scraping, to insure a perfect joint. To prevent oxides from forming during the soldering and to promote the flow of solder, a flux (chloride of zinc, or resin) is used. Chloride of zinc is prepared by dissolving pieces of zinc in hydrochloric acid (muriatic acid) until effervescence ceases. This solution is then strained and put in a bottle with a glass stopper. For soldering brass it is best to dilute with water.

For copper and galvanized metals, undiluted hydrochloric acid is often used.

314. Soldering-iron D, Fig. 187, is made of copper, and is pointed at one end.

315. Tin soldering-iron before using. — Heat iron until it will just melt solder; shape and brighten its point with a file and dip into acid, then apply to a stick of solder until it is '* tinned " or coated.

146

147

Fig. 187.

To solder two pieces of brass tube to make an elbow.

FlO. 187. SOLDEBINO WITH SOLDEBl-VQ IRON.

SCHEDULE OF OPERATIONS.

1. Cleiui and bright*!! surfaces of work A to be soldered by filing and fasten to plank B on bench C.

2. Heat iron D in heater E, rub add F on jtrint, clean iron

with cloth, then with solder G and iron D tack elbow with a drop of solder at outer and inner edges, then pass solder and iron along seam to complete the joint.

Attention. — If solder does not "run" properly, use a little mor«  acid and repeat operation. Irons D and H are used for straight work, swivel iron K for work which a straight iron could not reach.

317. Soldering by sweating is a process of heating the pieces to be united in the flame of a Bunsen burner, blowpipe, or forge fire. After the pieces are sufficiently heated, acid and solder are applied directly to the surfaces to be joined, the parts are again heated until the solder fuses and flows to tin the surfaces, when the pieces may be rubbed hard together, alined, and allowed to cool.

148 ELEMENTS OF MACHINE WORK.

Caution. — Thoroughly brighten the work, place flux in proper place, apply heat where solder is expected to flow, and never use heat enough to burn the solder.

Note. — A combined soft solder and flux is obtainable, in either stick form or paste, which cleanses and solders in one operation.

BRAZING.

318. Brazing or hard soldering serves to unite metals to endure high temperature and severe stress. Use a solder slightly lower in melting point and similar in hardness and malleability to metals to be united.

319. Brazing solder or hard solder, composed of equal parts of copper and zinc, is obtainable granulated or in form of wire, and melts at 1800° F. Brass wire and granulated brass, often called spelter, are also used. For soldering gold, use solder composed of gold, silver, and copper; for silver, silver and copper; for platinum, fine gold.

320. Flux for brazing. — Specially prepared borax is used to unite with the metallic oxide and clean joint, also to pre

Fia. 188.

321. To braze with hand blowpipe, a steel rocker arm, Fig.

SCHEDULE OF OPERATIONS.

1. Place work ^ to be brazed on hearth C within forge D; surround by fire brick E to retain and deflect heat on to work.

2. Use borax flux F freely; heat slowly with blowpipe B to a low red. Apply spelter G when flux flows. Control gas and

air through pipes H and J by hand.

3. Steadily raise temperature of work, continuously apply flux and spelter with rod K until spelter fuses thoroughly through joint.

4. Allow work to cool slowly

Attention. — All parts to be brazed must be closely fitted. In some cases it is best to bind parts together with iron wire. Steel or iron while being brazed may " scale " and be destroyed if heated too much; copper or brass may melt.

322. To braze with stationary blowpipe, half a rear steel axle case for an automobile, A, Fig, 189, with blowpipe B supplied through pipes C and D. Clean and pin parts

a Stationahy Blowpipe.

together, place on forge E, surround by bricks F, turn no blast and heat to a low red. Apply flux with rod G and

150

ELEMENTS OF MACHINE WORK.

supply spelter from wire H. Heat until spelter fusea through joint, shut ofE blast, and cool slowly in air.

323. To solder small work, as jewelry, use a blowpipe held in the mouth to direct flame on to work from a gas jet, Bunsen burner, or alcohol lamp.

324. To braze cast iron, use, in conjunction with the regular brazing material, a special compound which will decarbonize the fractured surface of cast iron.

326. To braze broken cast iron vise jaw with decarbonizing compound A, Fig. 190.

Flo. 100. — Bbazino Ca8

SCHEDULE OF OPERATIONS.

1 . Place jaw B with fracture B' on brazing forge C and heat to burn out all foreign matter.

2. When cool, remove and clean fracture with hydrochloric acid D, wash with water E, and wipe dry with clean cloth F.

3. Brush fracture vigorously with wire brush G, and coat with compound A made into paste by adding mixing Uqmd H.

4. Bolt the parts together with

bolt J, and place on fire brick and level with fire clay L. Place brick around and iron plate M on top of piece to deflect the heat. Place portable blowpipes N and P in position.

5. Heat jaw to cherry red, with spoon Q apply borax R and spelter S to fracture until joint is saturated with spelter, then allow the whole mass to cool slowly in mr.

BABBITTING. 151

Attention. — If brazing is carefully performed, the joint will be aa strong as the eaating was before it was broken. When brazing a small part to a large part, heat and cool parts evenly to avoid cracks due to miequal expansion and contraction. Small pieces may be held in aliuement for brazing by bedding with fire clay. Protect threaded parts from heat and spelter with a coating of fire clay or graphite. Coat finished work with Spanish white.

326. Pickle brazed work to remove surplus flux and allow joint to be more readily finished by filing, Pickle solution consists of one part sulphuric acid to thirty parts water.

BABBITTING.

327. Babbitt bearings are often used because they can be made in place and can be easily renewed. Eccentric straps, hangers, and main engine bearings etc., are often babbitted. The Ijoxes or bearings are cast in halves, the lower half being babbitted first.

The retaining webs at -the ends are bored or chipped and filed slightly larger than shaft to aline shaft. On fine work, as bearings of lathe headstocks, an undersized shaft is used, the Babbitt being peened or stretched by burnishing and the hole later bored, or bored and reamed. fio. 191. BABBiTnNa E-joine Bearings.

328. To Babbitt

cap of crank-shaft bearing, Fig. 191, the bottom half of bearing having been completed.

152

ELEMENTS OF MACHINE WORK.

SCHEDULE OF OPERATIONS.

Heat cap A of bearing on engine bed B to drive out any moisture, which would cause metal to explode.

Place strips of cardboard C, C between halves of box to prevent Babbitt from uniting with lower

half box, and strips of leather or clay, as at D, to prevent Babbitt running out. Heat Babbitt in pot E to 700° F. (until it will char a pine stick), skim, and pour with ladle Fj into funnel G which is formed by putty to guide the metal.

Attention. — Powdered resin sprinkled into the Babbitt or box will facilitate the flow.

Note, — In babbitting large shafts, paper may be wrapped around the shaft, or a shaft slightly larger than the regular one may be used to allow for shrinkage. Chalk, smoke, or soap shaft to prevent Babbitt from sticking.

CHAPTER XI.

POWER TRANSMISSION. ALINING AND LEVELING SHAFTING

AND INSTALLING MACHINES.

POWER TRANSMISSION.

329. Power for driving machine tools is obtained from engines, motors, etc., and transmitted to a main shaft and then to line shafts by belts, pulleys, or gears. Machines are seldom driven directly from line shaft but indirectly through countershafts of the friction type used on engine lathes and milling machines, and the tight and loose pulley type used on hand lathes, drilling machines, and planers.

In electrically driven machines where individual motors are employed, no countershaft is necessary, and by using a rheo • stat various speeds are obtained.

330. Shafting of steel or wrought iron is obtainable either turned or rolled. Turned shafts are tV" l^ss than nominal diameter, a 2" shaft being Hf" actual diameter. Cold-rolled shafts are obtainable of nominal or reduced size. Line shafts at least 2" nominal diameter, running from 150 to 200 revolutions per minute, supported by hangers bolted to timbers about 10 feet apart, form a good arrangement to transmit power to machine tools (see Figs. 203 and 204). Couplings are used to connect two or more lengths of shafting. Two collars, on each end of a line shaft bearing, take the thrust and prevent end motion.

331. Pulleys, solid and split, are obtainable in cast iron, pressed steel, and wood. The bores are usually tV less than nominal diameter, but may be obtained nominal diameter. Solid pulleys are used in places where they are not likely to be changed. It is best to use split pulleys on line shafts. To prevent slipping of belt, avoid belting together pulleys of greatly different diameters. Pulleys up to 36" diameter

153

154 ELEMENTS OF MACHINE WORK

are usually fastened to shaft by set screws or clamping; and over 36" by keys. Pulleys running at high speed are balanced. See § 361.

332. Crown and straight face pulleys. — Pulleys are tapered, leaving center highest to keep belts in place, as a belt tends to run to the highest part of pulley. Crowned tight and loose pulleys on countershafts are belted to a straight-face pulley on line shaft.

333. General formulas for calculating speeds of shafts and diameters of pulleys. — Diameter of driven X revolutions per minute = diameter of driver X revolutions per minute.

To find diameter of pulley on line shaft to give desired speed of countershaft.

Formula. —

^ . , , ^ , . Diam. of countershaft pulley

Desired speed of countershaft X 1 — r-r: 1 — ;;

Speed of line shaft

= Diameter of line shaft pulley.

Example. — Desired speed of countershaft for 12 engine lathe, 180 R.P.M. Diameter of countershaft pulley, 8"; speed of line shaft, 150 R.P.M.

Solution. — 180 X 8 -5- 150 = 9.6". Use 10" pulley.

To find diameter of pulley for a countershaft to give desired speed of a machine spindle.

Formula. —

^ . , , - . „ Diam. of spindle pulley

Desired speed of spindle X ^ — ;; ; — ^ — r—

Speed of countershaft

= Diameter of countershaft pulley.

Example. — Desired speed of grinder spindle, 1800 r.p.m. Diameter of pulley on grinder spindle, 6". Speed of countershaft, 500.

1800 X 6

Solution. --— - = 21.6".

500

Use 22" pulley.

To find speed of countershaft to give desired speed of constant speed drive.

BELTS. 155

Formula. — Desired speed of constant speed drive X Diam. of drive pulley

Diameter of countershaft pulley = Speed of countershaft.

Example. — Desired speed of constant speed drive, of an all-geared headstock machine, 600 R.P.M.

Diameter of drive pulley, 14"; diameter of pulley on countershaft, 19".

600 X 14"

Solution. -— — = 442, speed of countershaft.

19" ^

To find the velocity of last pulley in any system of shafts or pulleys.

Rule. — Multiply together all diameters of drivers and multiply the product by speed of first one; divide this product by product of diameters of all driven pulleys and the result will be the speed of the last one.

334. Effect of belts and gears on speeds. — The relative speed in a train of gears is always exact, but relative speed of pulleys is subject to variation, for a belt creeps or slips about 1% and does not drive driven pulley quite as fast as the calculation shows,

335. Belting of leather, rubber, or a woven fabric (cotton duck) is employed to transmit rotary motion and power from driving pulley to driven pulley.

336. Rope and round leather belts and chains. — Wire and hemp rope drivers are used; also round leather belts and chains. When rope is used, the pulleys are called sheaves or gi^oove pulleys, and are provided with V-shaped grooves to increase the grip. Sprocket wheels are used in chain transmission.

Belts of woven fabrics (canvas belts) are used for large and small powers and on high speed machines.

337. Rubber belts are used where great changes of moisture prevail, but not where there is much oil or dust.

338. Leather belts are designated as single and double according to the number of thicknesses of leather. Use single

156 ELEMENTS OF MACHINE WORK.

belts on small pulleys and light work. The grain side of belt (hair side) should always run next to pulley.

339. Open belts. — Fig. 192 shows an open belt from line shaft to countershaft, to rotate driven pulley in same direction, as the driving belt of an engine lathe.

DRIVINQ PULLEY DRIVEN PULLEY

I

I

Fig. 192. — Open Belt.

340. To obtain length of open belts. — Pass a tape, preferably of steel, around pulleys, and if a single belt is to be used, cut belt to length obtained by tape; but if a double belt, add twice thickness of belt. Length of small belts may be easily obtained by passing belt around pulleys and straining with hand pull. New belts stretch and become slack after a few days' use and should be taken up. This slackness may be anticipated on large belts by cutting belt 1" shorter for every 10 feet to allow for stretch. Do not run belts too tightly.

To obtain length of belt by formula.

Rule, — Add diameter of pulleys in inches. Multiply sum by constant 1.57, and add to product twice distance between centers in inches.

If there is much difference in diameter of pulleys the following formula should be used for open belts.

Formula for finding length of open belt:

L = 3.14 (« + r)+2D +

R = radius of large pulley.

r = radius of small pulley.

D = distance between centers of shafts.

L = length of belt.

D

BELTS. 157

Example. — In Fig. 192 one pulley is 24", other pulley 12" in diameter; distance between centers of the shafts is 9 feet. What is the length of belt?

Solution. — Putting radii of pulleys in feet, and substituting in formula:

25 L = 3.14(1 + .5) + 18+^

y = 4.71 + 18 + .027 = 22.74 feet or 22' 8J".

341. Cross belts. — Fig. 193 shows a cross belt drive to rotate driven pulley in opposite direction, as the backing belt of an engine lathe.

DRIVING PULLEY

Fig. 193. — Cross Belts.

342. To obtain length of cross belts. — If pulleys are already in position, use a tape for finding length of a cross belt; but if pulleys are not in position, length of cross belt may be obtained by following formula.

Formula for finding length of cross belt, as in Fig. 193.

(R 4- r)^ L = 3.14 {R + r) + 2D + Z. '

R = radius of large pulley. r = radius of small pulley. D = distance between centers of shafts. L = length of belt.

Example. — In Fig. 193 one pulley is 24", other pulley 12" in diameter; distance between centers of two shafts is 9 feet. What is length of belt?

158

ELEMENTS OF MACHINE WORK.

Solution. — Putting radii of pulleys in feet and substituting

in formula:

L = 3.14 (1 + .5) + 18 +

2.25

= 4.71 + 18 + .25 = 22.96 or 22' 11 J".

These formulas for open and cross belts can be d&pended upon to give length of single belts, for the error is less than stretch of belt. For double belts it is necessary to add thickness of belt to diameter of pulleys.

343. Quarter-turn and twisted belts are used to transmit power between two shafts lying in parallel planes but whose axes are at an angle. Fig. 194 shows plan, elevation, and end view. Shafts A and B are located at right angles, and figures show that pulleys C and D should be lined up to have belt run in direction of arrows.

344. To aline pulleys for quarter-turn belt.

DRIVEN PULLEV D

ELEVATION

Fig. 194. — Quarter-Turn Belt. SCHEDULE OF OPERATIONS.

1. Place pulleys C and D on respective shafts in approximate positions.

2. Slide pulley D upon shaft B until its middle plane, EF, is in line with point E of delivery side of pulley C.

3. Slide pulley C on shaft A until middle plane is in line with point G of delivery side of pulley D\ when pulleys will appear as shown in full lines in end view.

Attention. — The belt will nm off pulleys if direction is reversed. To revolve pulleys in opposite direction, they must be lined up in reverse order.

LACING BELTS. 159

345. To aline pulleys whose axes are other than a right angle.

— It may be seen that the small pulley can be rotated, as shown dotted in end view, about axis EF projected at Hj to •any intermediate angle betweenan open belt (0°) and a cross belt (180°), and still have all the conditions of proper alinement fulfilled.

Adjust pulleys to make belt run properly, especially for cross and quarter-turn belts.

' 346. Guide pulleys. — When two shafts do not lie in parallel planes, supplementary guide pulleys are used to guide belt. They are also used as tighteners for open belts.

347. Joining ends of belts. — The ends of belts are joined in two ways: by bringing butt ends together and fastening with lacing or hooks, and by cementing, gluing, or riveting the scarfed ends together.

348. Belt lacing. — Rawhide lacing comes in widths J to i", and in various lengths and thicknesses. For belts 2" and less, use i" lace; 2" to 4", t^^"; 4" to 16", f "; above 16", i".

349. Lacing belts and belt punches. — Cut belt off square with a try square and knife. Punch holes with belt

Fig. Ip5. — Punching Belt to Lace.

punch Aj Fig. 195, in belt opposite each other. Four sizes of cutters, C, D, B, and F, are provided for different widths of belts.

350. To lace small and medium belts. Fig. 196. — Punch single row of holes in each end: two holes for belts less than

160

ELEMENTS OF MACHINE WORK.

2"; 3 holes from 2" to 3"; 4 holes from 3" to 4i"; 5 holes from \\" to 6".

^— 3'

BELT PULLEY SIDE

OR QRAIN

5"

Fig. 196. — Lacing Small Belt.

SCHEDULE OF OPERATIONS.

In Z" belt in Fig. 196, punch 3 holes and use \" rawhide lacing.

Pass ends of lacing down through holes A and B, with grain side of lacing outward leaving ends of equal length.

Pass end of lacing that was passed down through A up through 5, but do not pull tight ; and end of lacing that passed down through B up through A. Draw both tight. The lacing will appear on pulley side as at A' and B*.

Pass lacing that is up through A down through D, and the lacing that is up through B down through C

Pass lacing that is down through C up through D, and lacing that is down through D up through C. Draw tight.

Next pass the lacing that is up through C down through F, and lacing that is up through D down through E,

Pass lacing that is down through E up through F, and lacing that is down through F up through E. Draw tight.

To fasten ends, punch small holes with a belt awl at G and H,

Pass lacing that is up through E down through D and up through (j.

Pass lacing that is up through F down through E and up through H, Draw ends of lacing up through holes G and i/, hard. Make incision with knife on one side of lacing close to belt to form a barb; then cut off lacing about Y above incision.

LACING BELTS.

351. To lace large belts. Fig. 197.— For belts from 3" to 5" punch 3 and 2 holes; for belts 5" to 7" punch 4 and 3 holes.

Fio. 197. — Lacino Laboe Belt.

For wider belts punch one or two more than number of inches in width.

SCHEDULE OF OPERATIONS.

In 6" belt in Rg. 197 punch holes for f lacing.

Pass ends of rawhide lacing from under or grain side of belt up through A and H, middle holes in second row ; draw ends of belt together firmly, and make ends of lacing of equal length.

With end of lacing that is up through A lace to left through

B, C, D, B, F, G, F, G, D, E, B,

C, and H; then punch small hole at K with awl, and draw lacing

through hole and lutch it. It is often desirable, on very heavy belts, to give lacing a firmer hitch by punching two or more small holes, passing the lacing through them and barbing it at last hole.

Lace the right side in same manner as left.

Note. — When lacing a wide belt by tins method, it is better to lace alternately, right and left.

352. Belt ciamps. — The method of lacing wide, heavy belts is to place the belt on the pulleys and use a belt clamp to draw ends of belt together.

162

ELEMENTS OF MACHINE WORK.

BELT

B

Fig. 198. — Coil Wire Lacing.

353. CoU wire lacing. Fig. 198. — Small perforations are made in ends of belt at A and B (right and left spiral) by a helical needle, in a special machine operated with crank by hand. The coil wire lacing is inserted in same manner as the needle, flattened and

ll^^ pressed well into belt. The .nds are

coupled together by a rawhide pin, or ateel pin, shown at C,

Composition wire belt lacing is used in a similar manner to raw-hide : Punch holes from §" to y apart. Begin at two center holes and lace both ways with straight strands on pulley side and at each turn tighten wire with pliers. Fasten ends by back lacing and taking single turn on wire with pliers, and cut off. Flatten lacing with hammer.

354. Belt hooks and metal fastenings. Fig. 199. — These hooks can be put in in less time than lacing. The holes are punched with a special belt punch. A shows hooks with pulley side of belt up, and B the outside of belt, showing fin

FiG. 199. — Double Hitch Belt Hooks. Fig. 200. — Steel Belt Lacing.

ished joint. Steel belt lacing in Fig. 200 is useful for small belts. The lacing, ready to be applied, is shown at Aj and at B the finished joint, as it runs with clinched points of lacing against pulley.

355. Cementing or gluing belts. — Belts up to 3" in width are usually lapped 4", and wider belts about width of belt. The ends of belt may be beveled off to form lap (so that the thickness of lap will be same as rest of belt) with a woodworker's smoothing plane. Belt cement is obtainable, but for small belts glue will make a good joint. After cement or

SPEED INDICATOR. 163

glue is applied, the joint should be clamped very tightly between two pieces of smooth board and allowed to dry. High-speed belts should always be made endless.

366. Belt dressing. — When a leather belt becomes dry, an

application of castor or neat's-foot oil will make it pliable and increase its adhesion to the pulley. Belt dressings are obtainable. Oiling or applying a belt dressing to a belt when it needs it will prolong the life of the belt; but too much dressing ia injurious to leather. Resin or soap is injurious.

367. Speed indicator, Fig. 201. — Revolutions of shafts, spindles, etc., are quickly counted by a speed indicator, used in conjunction with a watch. Spindle A passes through case B containing two dials C, D. Handle E is of hard rubber. Dial C is graduated into 100 divisions; each division when passing indicating finger F represents one revolution of spindle. Dial

Fio. 201. — Speed Indicator.

. is figured to read right or left. Dial D has fifty divisions, each representing 100 revolutions of spindlsil or one complete revolution of dial C This indicator will count 5000 revolutions.

Some speed indicators are so arranged that they may be started or stopped without removing the eyes from the watch. An attachment is obtainable also for measuring surface speeds.

Indicators with long points are obtainable for use where ends of shafts are not easy to reach.

164

ELEMENTS OF MACHINE WORK.

SCHEDULE OF OPERATIONS. For Using Speed Indicator, Fig. 201.

To set indicator. — Press and turn screw G, then turn dial C until trip pin H is close to finger F to the right or left, so that pin H will not pass under finger until dial has made one complete revolution; then tighten screw G. Next turn dial D until finger F engages depression indicated by pin K.

To use, hold watch in left hand and with right press indicator point into center of revolving shaft or spindle, as at L.

Example. — When point of spindle A is held against shaft L sixty seconds, withdraw, and if dial D is distant 10 spaces and dial C 40 spaces, the spindle is revolving at 1040 R.P.M.

Solution. — 10 X 100 + 40 1040.

Attention. — Two rubber tips are provided to go over end of spindle A and used as at M, N and P, Q. A surface speed attachment is also obtainable.

368. Pair of gears and train of gears. — Two gears that run together are commonly called a pair of gears, one the driver and the other the driven or follower; and one revolves in the opposite direction to the other. When three or more gears run together, they are commonly called a train of gears. When a train of three gears run together, as the simple screwcutting gears of an engine lathe, the middle gear is called the intermediate or idler, which meshes with driver and driven gears and compels both to revolve in the same direction. The intermediate gear does not change relative speeds of driver and driven gears.

369. To calculate speed of gears. — Rule. — When calculating speed of gearing, use same rules as for belting, but take numbers of teeth in gears instead of diameters of pulleys, see § 333.

Example. — How many revolutions does a 32-tooth driven or follower gear make to 5 revolutions of a 96-tooth driver?

Solution. — 96 X 5 -i- 32 = 15 revolutions of driven gear.

BALANCING PULLEYS. 165

Examjile. — The back gears of an engine lathe consist of two pairs of gears. On some 14" lathes, one gear and pinion contain 81 teeth and 27 teeth respectively, and the other gear and pinion 76 teeth and 19 teeth. How many revolutions will cone pulley make while spindle makes one revolution?

27 X 19

360. Pullejrs, fly wheels, car wheels should he in balance to avoid vibration. Small pulleys are balanced only when they are to run at very high speeds.

Line shaft pulleys, cones, armatures, and polishing wheels are often given a standing balance upon two pairs of balancing disks, or on balancing ways, as in Fig. 202.

361. Balancing pulleys — Standing balance. Fig. 202. — Level two finished balancing ways A, A' upon their supports,

lyi

Fio. 202. — Balancing PcLLEr.

and insert close-fitting shaft or mandrel B in finished pulley with its set screw in place, and mount on ways.

Start pulley, to rotate slowly; the heavy side will stop at the bottom. Weight the rim diametrically opposite with clay or putty as at C to offset the unbalanced weight. Repeat until pulley will stop at any position. Remove lumps of clay. Drill holes through rim A" and countersink and rivet

166 ELEMENTS OF MACHINE WORK.

pieces of metal as at D, D'. Weight of metal and rivets should equal weight of clay. Then file flush. Sometimes the hub and inner side of rim of pulleys are turned to balance them.

Attention. — Pulleys, fly wheels, etc., are often balanced by cutting away metal from the heavy side by drilling, chipping or filing instead of adding metal to the light side.

Balancing fly wheels — Rotary balance. — Gas engine fly wheels, electric motor and dynamo armatures, drums and pulleys running at high speeds are rotary balanced in a special machine.

To rotary balance a fly wheel, it is poised horizontally on the point of the perpendicular center and a weight of the necessary size is located at the middle of the inside of the rim to obtain a standing balance. The machine is then run at the desired speed and fly wheel tested with chalk or a clay pencil. If wheel runs out, move weight toward edge of rim. If on reaching edge of rim the fly wheel still runs out, increase size of weight and place small counter weight diametrically and transversely opposite. If the weight is not heavy enough, increase its size, but if this affects the standing balance, also increase size of counter weight opposite.

Attention, — Automobile and power-boat crank shafts are rotary balanced in special machines.

ALINING AND LEVELING SHAFTING AND INSTALLING

MACHINES.

362. Erection of hangers for main-line shaft. — In wooden construction the hangers to support the main-line shafting are bolted to wooden beams, posts, or walls.

In concrete construction anchor bolts are molded into the beams so that the line-shaft hangers will be ten feet apart.

The anchor bolts support bracket castings to which are bolted two angle irons which run with girders. The hangers are bolted to the angle irons and support the shafting which runs along the building. See Figs. 203 and 204.

AUNING SHAFTING.

167

363. To aline and level shafting, line and level method. The fly wheel of the engine may be belted to a supplementary shaft called a jack shaft, or direct to the main line.

The countershaft may be driven direct from the main line or through another line of shafting, and all are alined from the engine shaft.

Fia. 203. — Alininq and Leveling SnAmNa, Line and Level Method.

SCHEDULE OF OPERATIONS.

To Place Hangers.

Stretch fine grass or silk bne 1, 2, Fig. 203, in direction of desired shaft or use wall as guide. Mark location and place hangers A, B approximately.

Place shaft in boxes, and lift into hangers.

To Aline Shaft VerHcatly. Use stick 3, 3' with nail in end and move shaft until parallel with line 1, 2, adjusting hangers by screws 4, 5 or with heavy hammer at 6, 7.

To Aline Shaft Horizontally,

Hang leveling hooks 8, 9 from shaft with straight edge 10 on hooka. Place spirit level 11 on straight edge and test, making adjustment at 12, 13.

Movelevelingdevicealongshaft, placing hook 8 where 9 is, test and adjust again, and so on along

AUenlion. — Instead of leveling device, spirit level is sometimes placed directly on shaft to

ELEMENTS OF MACHINE WORK.

304. Aliniog and leveling shafting, transit method. — The

shaft is set in approximate alinement by stretching a line at desired location or by measuring from the wall. The hangers are fastened to posts, timbers, walls or ceiling and the shaft placed in boxes and accurately alined by the transit method, Fig. 204.

Targets are placed on shaft and wall. A special architects' level is used and the shafting is alined and leveled in one opei ation.

The device b used also for setting up machinery and grading steam and water pipe. By this scheme the alinement of shafting is tested and corrected in large factories, mills, etc., at stated periods to maintain original alinement.

With the addition of a special lantern, shafting may be alined by night.

ALINING SHAFTING.

169

SCHEDULE OF OPERATIONS, Transit Method, Fig. 204.

At end of shaft 1, in detail 1' and near hanger, hang portable target 2 by clamps 3 with plumb bob 4 attached. Set level 5 at zero and aline center of target with plumb line. Lower plumb bob and mark spot on floor, move plumb bob about one foot and mark second spot and connect with straight line. Move target away and center transit 6 (telescope and level) over line on floor by blumb bob 7. Set transit level by its adjusting screws 8. Place cap 9 on telescope and adjust target up or down imtil horizontal line coincides with pointer on cap. Move target to other end of shaft and set level at zero. Remove cap, sight through and adjust telescope to coincide with vertical line on target. Remove portable target. Place fixed target 10 on wall at end of line. Sight through telescope, and have assistant adjust fixed target in both directions until cross lines on target coincide with cross hairs on telescope. The fixed target is only used to test alinement of telescope.

Hang portable target 2' near farthest end of shaft. Sight through telescope, and have assistant adjust shaft horizontally by adjusting screws 11, 11', and vertically by adjusting screws 12 12' on hanger 13, or by heavy hammer at 14, 14' on hangers without side adjusting screws, until cross lines on target coincide with cross hairs on telescope. Same method with other hangers.

A tterUion. — Each hanger may be tested and the error indicated on a chart, then the corrections made first at the hanger that is most out of line, or in the regular order beginning at the farthest hanger. The amoimt to adjust hanger may be known by observing on cross hairs of telescope the number of notches on sighting spaces in target which read to eighths of inches vertically and horizontally. For night use lanterns are provided.

Note, — A line shaft of different diameters may be alined as easily as a shaft of one diameter, as the clamps are self-centering and do not alter height of target.

366. To erect a countershaft or shaft parallel to the main line. — In wood construction, hanger planks or stringers are bolted to the beams and parallel to the main line of shafting. To the hanger plank or stringer the countershaft hangers are bolted.

170 ELEMENTS OF MACHINE WORK.

In concrete construction, the hanger planks or stringers are bolted to the angle irons, and countershaft hangers are bolted to them.

Place hangers in alinement and approximately parallel to main line by measurement or by stretching a line, and bolt to hanger plank or stringers with lag screws or bolts. Remove pulleys from countershaft and place shaft in boxes, test shaft with level and place shims of wood under hangers until shaft is level. If not over 15 feet distant, clamp two short sticks together or drive nail in end of a long stick to permit of some adjustment and use this as a caliper at ends to test, then adjust hangers until shaft is parallel with main line.

For shafts a greater distance apart, drop a plumb line from the main line at two points on the floor some distance apart, and connect with chalk line; then draw a parallel line on the floor under desired position of countershaft by measurement. Obtain the position of each hanger and countershaft, dropping a plumb line from the hanger plank to this floor line.

Attention. — If it is not convenient to remove pulleys from shaft, place another shaft in boxes and test its alinement.

366. To install machine tools. — Place the machine under or as nearly under the countershaft as is desired, the spindle or driving shaft being parallel to the countershaft, and aline the cone or pulley on the machine with the cone or pulley on the countershaft by dropping a plumb line direct to spindle shaft or ways and moving the machine until the alinement is correct.

If the machine is not directly under countershaft, test alinement by measuring from spindle to plumb line. Fasten machine to wooden floor with lag screws, and to concrete floor with expansion bolts in holes drilled with a stone drill either flat or star-pointed.

Attention. — Heavy machines such as milling machines, planers, etc., are not always bolted to floor but leveled on the wooden floor or leveled and bedded with cement on concrete floor.

CHAPTER XII. TABLES AND OTHER DATA USED IN MACHINE WORK.

367. To etch names and figures on hardened steel. — In

a dark room, cover surface with pulverized asphaltum dissolved in benzole.

Draw inscription on tracing cloth, clamp the design to the surface and cover with glass or celluloid. Expose one minute, develop in turpentine and wash in water. Flood inscription with chloride of iron, strong iodine, or a mixture composed of 2 ounces pyroUgneous acid, i ounce alcohol, and i ounce nitric acid. Let stand about ten minutes. Wash in water.

For work which is to receive an elaborate design, such as swords, saws, etc., the inscription is printed reversed upon paper with an ink that will resist acid, then transferred to the work ; the paper is removed and the inscription flooded with acid.

A rough method is to scratch letters or figures through a wax coating and with a feather or a piece of wood fill depressions with acid.

368. Bluing revolvers — Iron and steel. — The color is obtained by heating the highly polished work in pulverized charcoal and rubbing with a cloth saturated with oil or, preferably, vaseline. Light blues are obtained by heating work in sand or wood ashes.

369. Gun barrel finish — blacking, bluing, browning. —

Gun barrels, revolvers, etc., made of soUd steel or laminations

of iron and mild steel are colored by acid oxidizing solutions.

Different formulas are used to produce different colors.

For a brown finish use the following : 1 J oz. alcohol, li oz.

171

172 ELEMENTS OF MACHINE WORK.

tincture chloride of iron, J oz. corrosive sublimate, 1^ oz. sweet spirits of niter, 1 oz. blue vitriol, f oz. nitric acid.

Apply the solution to the barrel with a sponge every few hours, and twice a day scratch off the rust with file card. Repeat until dark enough.

370. Repairing rust holes and splits in pipe, and plugging blowpipes. — To temporarily repair a leak in a steam or water pipe, place a piece of sheet rubber packing over hole or split and use a special emergency pipe clamp.

Blow holes in fittings or castings may be drilled, tapped, plugged, and the plug filed off flush. Small blow holes are filled with a rust joint or special cement. - 371. To case-harden cast iron. — Heat the piece to a cherry red, coat with cyanide of potassium, reheat to a cherry red and plunge into cold water. See § 239. Iron castings may be case-hardened also by the box process. See § 240.

INCHES WITH EQUIVALENTS IN MILLIMETERS. 173

H

CO H

ft \^

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174

ELEMENTS OF MACHINE WORK.

373. TABLE OF MILLIMETERS WITH EQUIVALENTS IN INCHES.

From 1^ to 100 m/m Advancing by jV Millimeter.

m/m.

Inches.

M/M.

Inches.

m/m.

Inches.

m/m.

Inches.

m/m.

Inches.

.1

.00394

5.1

.20078

10.1

.39763

15.1

.59448

20.1

.79133

.2

.00787

5.2

.20472

10.2

.40157

15.2

.59842

20.2

.79527

.3

.01181

5.3

.20866

10.3

.40551

15.3

.60236

20.3

.79921

.4

.01575

5.4

.21259

10.4

.40944

15.4

.60629

20.4

.80314

.5

.01968

5.5

.21653

10.5

.41338

15.5

.61023

20.5

.80708

.6

.02362

5.6

.22047

10.6

.41732

15.6

.61417

20.6

.81102

.7

.02756

5.7

.22440

10.7

.42125

15.7

.61810

20.7

.81495

.8

.03149

5.8

.22834

10.8

.42519

15.8

.62204

20.8

.81889

.9

.03543

5.9

.23228

10.9

.42913

15.9

.62598

20.9

.82833

1.0

.03937

6.0

.23622

11.0

.43307

16.0

.62992

21.0

82677

1.1

.04330

6 1

.24015

11.1

.43700

16.1

.63385

21.1

83070

1.2

.04724

6.2

.24409

11.2

.44094

16.2

.63779

21.2

.83464

1.3

.05118

6.3

.24803

11.3

.44488

16.3

.64173

21.3

.83858

1 4

.05512

6.4

.25196

11.4

.44881

16.4

.64566

21.4

.84251

1 5

.05905

6.5

.25590

11.5

.45275

16.5

.64960

21.5

.84645

1.6

.06299

6.6

.25984

11.6

.45669

16.6

.65354

21.6

.85039

1.7

.06692

6.7

.26377

11.7

.46062

16.7

.65747

21.7

.85432

1.8

.07086

6.8

.26771

11.8

.46456

16.8

.66141

21.8

.85826

1.9

.07480

6.9

.27165

11.9

.46850

16.9

.66535

21.9

.86220

2.0

.07874

7.0

.27559

12.0

.47244

17.0

.66929

22.0

.86614

2.1

.08267

7.1

.27952

12.1

.47637

17.1

.67322

22.1

.87007

2.2

.08661

7.2

.28346

12.2

.48031

17.2

.67716

22.2

.87401

2.3

.09055

7.3

.28740

12.3

.48425

17.3

.68110

22.3

.87795

2.4

.09448

7.4

.29133

12.4

.48818

17.4

.68503

22.4

.88188

2.5

.09842

7.5

.29527

12.5

.49212

17.5

.68897

22.5

.88582

2.6

. 10236

7 6

.29921

12.6

.49606

17.6

.69291

22.6

.88976

2.7

.10629

7.7

.30314

12.7

.49999

17.7

.69684

22.7

.89369

2.8

.11023

7.8

.30708

12.8

.50393

17.8

.70078

22.8

.89763

2.9

.11417

7.9

.31102

12.9

.50787

17.9

.70472

22.9

.90157

3.0

.11811

8.0

.31496

13.0

.51181

18.0

.70866

23.0

.90551

3.1

.12204

8.1

.31889

13.1

.51574

18.1

.71259

23.1

.90944

3.2

.12598

8.2

.32283

13.2

.51968

18.2

.71653

23.2

.91338

3.3

.12992

8.3

.32677

13.3

.52362

18.3

.72047

23.3

.91732

3 4

.13385

8.4

.33070

13.4

.52755

18.4

.72440

23.4

.92125

3.5

.13779

8.5

.33464

13.5

.53149

18.5

.72834

23.5

.92519

3.6

.14173

8.6

.33858

13.6

.53543

18.6

.73228

23.6

.92913

3.7

.14566

8.7

.34251

13.7

.53936

18.7

.73621

23.7

.93306

3.8

.14960

8.8

.34645

13 8

.54330

18.8

.74015

23.8

.93700

3.9

.15354

8.9

.35039

13.9

.54724

18.9

.74409

23.9

.94094

4.0

.15748

9.0

.35433

14.0

.55118

19.0

.74803

24.0

.94488

4.1

.16141

9.1

.35826

14.1

.55511

19.1

.75196

24.1

.94881

4.2

16535

9.2

.36220

14.2

.55905

19.2

.75590

24.2

.95275

4.3

.16929

9.3

.36614

14.3

.56299

19.3

.75984

24.3

.95669

4.4

.17322

9.4

.37007

14.4

.56692

19.4

.76377

24.4

.96062

4.5

.17716

9.5

.37401

14.5

.57086

19.5

.76771

24.5

.96456

4.6

.18110

9.6

.37795

14.6

.57480

19.6

.77165

24.6

.96850

4.7

.18503

9.7

.38188

14.7

.57873

19.7

.77558

24.7

.97243

4.8

.18897

9.8

.38582

14.8

.58267

19.8

.77952

24.8

.97637

4.9

.19291

9.9

.38976

14.9

.58661

19.9

.78346

24.9

.98031

5.0

.19685

10.0

.39370

15.0

.59055

20.0

.78740

25.0

.98425

MILLIMETERS WITH EQUIVALENTS IN INCHES. 175

TABLE OF MILLIMETERS WITH EQUIVALENTS IN INCHES. Cont'd.

From 3^ to 100 m /m Advancing by yV Millimeter.

m/m.

Inches.

m/m.

Inches.

M/M.

Inches.

m/m.

Inches.

m/m.

Inches.

25.1

.98818

30.1

1.18503

35.1

1.38188

40.1

1.57873

45.1

1.77558

25.2

.99212

30.2

1.18897

35.2

1.38582

40.2

1 58267

45.2

1.77952

25.3

.99606

30.3

1.19291

35.3

1.38976

40.3

1.58661

45.3

1.78346

25.4

.99999

30.4

1.19684

35.4

1.39369

40.4

1.59054

45.4

1.78739

25.5

1 .00393

30.5

1.20078

35.5

1.39763

40.5

1.59448

45.5

1.79133

25.6

1.00787

30.6

1 .20472

35.6

1 .40157

40.6

1.59842

45.6

1.79527

25.7

1.01180

30.7

1.20865

35.7

1.40550

40.7

1.60235

45.7

1.79920

25.8

1.01574

30.8

1.21259

35.8

1.40944

40.8

1.60629

45.8

1.80314

25.9

1 .01968

30.9

1.21653

35.9

1.41338

40.9

1.61023

45.9

1.80708

26.0

1 .02362

31.0

1.22047

36.0

1.41732

41.0

1.61417

46.0

1.81102

26.1

1.02755

31.1

1.22440

36.1

1 .42125

41.1

1.61810

46.1

1.81495

26.2

1.03149

31.2

1.22834

36.2

1.42519

41.2

1.62204

46.2

1.81889

26.3

1.03543

31.3

1.23228

36.3

1.42913

41.3

1.62598

46.3

1.82283

26.4

1.03936

31.4

1.23621

36.4

1.43306

41.4

1.62991

46.4

1.82676

26.5

1.04330

31.5

1.24015

36.5

1.43700

41.5

1.63385

46.5

1.S3070

26.6

1.04724

31.6

1.24409

36.6

1.44094

41.6

1.63779

46.6

1.83464

26.7

1.05117

31.7

1.24802

36.7

1.44487

41.7

1.64172

46.7

1.83857

26.8

1.05511

31.8

1.25196

36.8

1.44881

41.8

1.64566

46.8

1.84251

26.9

1.05905

31.9

1.25590

36.9

1 45275

41.9

1.64960

46.9

1.84645

27.0

1.06299

32.0

1.25984

37.0

1.45669

42.0

1.65354

47.0

1.85039

27.1

1.06692

32.1

1.26377

37.1

1.46062

42.1

1.65747

47.1 1.85432

27.2

1.07086

32.2

1.26771

37.2

1 .46456

42.2

1.66141

47.2

1.85826

27.3

1.07480

32.3

1.27165

37.3

1.46850

42.3

1.66535

47.3

1.86220

27.4

1 07873

32.4

1.27558

37.4

1.47243

42.4

1.66928

47.4

1.86613

27.5

1.08267

32.5

1.27952

37.5

1 .47637

42.5

1.67322

47.5

1.87007

27.6

1.08661

32.6

1.28346

37.6

1 .48031

42.6

1.67716

47.6

1.87401

27.7

1.09054

32.7

1.28739

37.7

1.48424

42.7

1.68109

47.7

1.87794

27.8

1.09448

32.8

1.29133

37.8

1.48818

42.8

1.68503

47.8

1.88188

27.9

1.09842

32.9

1.29527

37 9

1.49212

42.9

1.68897

47.9

1.88582

28.0

1.10236

33.0

1.29921

38.0

1.49606

43.0

1.69291

48.0

1.88976

28.1

1 . 10629

33.1

1.30314

38.1

1.49999

43.1

1.69684

48.1

1.89369

28.2

1.11023

33.2

1 .30708

38.2

1.50393

43.2

1.70078

48.2

1.89763

28.3

1.11417

33.3

1.31102

38.3

1.50787

43.3

1.70472

48.3

1.90157

28.4

1.11810

33.4

1.31495

38.4

1.51180

43.4

1.70865

48.4

1.90550

28.5

1.12204

33.5

1.31889

38.5

1.51574

43.5

1.71259

48.5

1.90944

28.6

1.12598

33.6

1.32283

38.6

1.51968

43.6

1.71653

48.6

1 .91338

28.7

1.12991

33.7

1 .32676

38.7

1.52361

43.7

1.72046

48.7

1.91731

28.8

1 . 13385

33.8

1 .33070

38.8

1.52755

43.8

1.72440

48.8

1 .92125

28.9

1.13779

33.9

1.33464

38.9

1.53149

43.9

1.72834

48.9

1.92519

29.0

1.14173

34.0

1.33858

39.0

1.53543

44.0

1.73228

49.0

1.92913

29.1

1.14566

34.1

1.34251

39.1

1.53936

44.1

1.73621

49.1 1.93306

29.2

1.14960

34.2

1.34645

39.2

1.54330

44.2

t. 74015

49.2 1.93700

29.3

1.15354

34.3

1.35039

39.3

1.54724

44.3

1.74409

49.3 1.94094

29.4

1.15747

34.4

1.35432

39.4

1.55117

44.4

1.74802

49.4

1 .94487

29.5

1.16141

34.5

1.35826

39.5

1.55511

44.5

1.75196

49.5

1 .94881

29.6

1.16535

34.6

1.36220

39.6

1.55905

44.6

1.75590

49.6

1 .95275

29.7

1 . 16928

34.7

1.36613

39.7

1.56298

44.7

1.75983

49.7

1 .95668

29.8

1.17322

34.8

1 .37007

39.8

1.56692

44.8

1.76377

49.8

1.96062

29.9

1.17716 34.9 1.18110 35.0

1.37401

39.9

1.57086

44.9

1.76771

49.9

1 .96456

30.0

1.37795 40.0

1.57480

45.0 1.77165|

50.0

1 .96850

176

ELEMENTS OF MACHINE WORK.

TABLE OF MILLIMETERS WITH EQUIVALENTS IN INCHES. ConVd. From ^ to 100 m /m Advancing by ^ Millimeter.

m/m.

Inches.

M/M.

Inches.

m/m.

Inches.

m/m.

Inches.

M /M. 1 Inches.

60.1

1.97243

55.1

2.16928

60.1 2.36613

65.1

2.56298

70.1 12.75983

50.2

1.97637

55.2

2.17322

60.2 2.37007

65.2

2.56692

70.2 2.76377

50.3

1.98031

55.3

2.17716

60.3 2.37401

65.3

2.57086

70.3 2.76771

50.4

1.98424

55.4

2.18109

60.4 2.37794

65.4

2.57479

70.4 2.77164

50.5

1.98818

55.5

2.18503

60.5 2.38188

65.5

2.57873

70.5 |2. 77558

50.6

1 .99212

55.6

2.18897

60.6 '2.38582

65.6

2.58267

70.6 2.77952

50.7

1.99605

55.7

2.19290

60.7 2.38975

65.7

2.58660

70.7 2.78345

50.8

1.99999

55.8

2.19684

60.8

2.39369

65.8

2.59054

70.8

2.78739

50.9

2.00393

55.9

2.20078

60.9

2.39763

65.9

2.59448

70.9

2.79133

51.0

2.00787

56.0

2.20472

61.0

2.40157

66.0

2.59842

71.0

2.79527

51.1

2.01180

56.1

2.20865

61.1

2.40550

66.1

2.60235

71.1

2.79920

51.2

2.01574

56.2

2.21259

61.2 '2.40944

66.2

2.60629

71.2

2.80314

51.3

2.01968

56.3

2.21653

61.3 2.41338

66-3

2.61023

71 .3 2.80708

51.4

2.02361

56.4

2.22046

61.4 2.41731

66.4

2.61416

71.4 2.81101

\ 51.5

2.02755

56.5

2.22440

61.5

2.42125

66.5

2.61810

71.5 2.81495

51.6

2.03149

56.6

2.22834

61.6

2.42519

66.6

2.62204

71.6

2.81889

51.7

2.03542

56.7

2.23227

61.7

2.42912

66.7

2.62597

71.7

2.82282

51.8

2.03936

56.8

2.23621

61. 8 12.43306

66.8 !2. 62991

71.8

2.82676

51.9

2.04330

56.9

2.24015

61.9 2.43700

66.9

2.63385

71.9

2.83070

52.0 2.04724

57.0

2.24409

62.0,2.44094

67.0

2.63779

72.0 2.83464

52.1

2.05117

57.1

2.24802

62.1

2.44487

67.1

2.64172

72.1 2.83857

52.2

2.05511

57.2

2.25196

62.2

2.44881

67.2

2.64566

72.2 2.84251

52.3

2.05905

57.3

2.25590

62.3

2.45275

67.3

2.64960

72.3 2.84645

52.4

2.06298

57.4

2.25983

62.4

2.45668

67.4

2.65353

72.4 2.85038

52.5

2.06692

57.5

2.26377

62.5

2.46062

67.5

2.65747

72.5 2.85432

52.6

2.07086

57.6

2.26771

62.6

2.46456

67.6 2.66141

72.6 2.85826

52.7

2.07479

57.7

2.27164

62.7

2.46849

67.7 2.66534

72.7 2.86219

52.8

2.07873

57.8

2.27558

62.8

2.47243

67.8 2.66928

72.8 2.86613

52.9

2.08267

57.9

2.27952

62.9

2.47637

67.9 2.67322

72.9 2.87007

53.0

2.08661

58.0

2.28346

63.0

2.48031

68.0

2.67716

73.0 12.87401

53.1

2.09054

58.1

2.28739

63.1

2.48424

68.1

2.68109

73.1

2.87794

53.2

2.09448

58.2

2.29133

63.2

2.48818

68.2

2.68503

73.2

2.88188

53.3

2.09842

58.3

2.29527

63.3

2.49212

68.3

2.68897

73.3 2.88582

53.4

2.10235

58.4

2.29920

63.4

2.49605

68.4

2.69290

73.4 2.88975

53.5

2 . 10629

58.5

2.30314

63.5

2.49999

68.5

2.69684

73.5 2.89369

53.6

2.11023

58.6

2.30708

63.6

2.50393

68.6

2.70078

73.6 2.89763

53.7

2.11416

58.7 2.31101

63.7

2.50786

68.7

2.70471

73.7 2.90156

53.8

2.11810

58.8 2.31495

63.8

2.51180

68.8

2.70865

73.8 2.90550

53.9 12.12204

58.9

2.31889

63.9

2.51574

68.9

2.71259

73.9 2.90944

54.0

2.12598

59.0

2.32283

64.0 2.51968

69.0

2.71653

74.0

2.91338

54.1

2.12991

59.1

2.32676

64.1

2.52361

69.1

2.72046

74.1

2.91731

54.2

2.13385

59.2

2.33070

64.2

2.52755

69.2

2.72440

74.2

2.92125

54.3

2.13779

59.3

2.33464

64.3

2.53149

69.3

2.72834

74.3

2.92519

54.4

2.14172

59.4 2.33857

64.4 2.53542

69.4 2.73227

74.4 2.92912

54.5

2.14566

59.5 2.34251

64.5 2.53936

69.5 2.73621

74.5 2.93306

54.6

2.14960

59.6 2.34645

64.6 2.54330

69.6

2.74015

74.6 2.93700

54.7

2.15353

59.7

2.35038

64.7 2.54723

69.7

2.74408

74.7 2.94093

54.8

2.15747

59.8

2.35432

64.8 2.55117

69.8!

2.74802

74.8 2.94487

54.9

2.16141

59.9

2.35826

64.912.55511

69.9,

2.75196

74.9 2.94881

55.0

2.16535

60.0

2.36220

65.0 '2.55905

70.0;

2.75590

75 2.95275

MILLIMETERS WITH EQUIVALENTS IN INCHES. 177

TABLE OF MILLIMETERS WITH EQUIVALENTS IN INCHES. Cond'd, From yV to 100 m/m Advaacing by ^ Millimeter.

m/m.

Inches.

m/m.

Inches.

m/m.

Inches.

m/m.

Inches.

m/m.

Inches.

75.1

2.95668

80.1

3.15353

85.1

3.35038

90.1

3.54723

95.1

3.74408

75.2

2.96062

80.2

3.15747

85.2

3.35432

90.2

3.55117

95.2

3.74802

75.3

2.96456

80.3

3.16141

85.3

3.35826

90.3

3.55511

95.3

3.75196

75.4

2.96849

80.4

3 . 16534

85.4

3.36219

90.4

3.55904

95.4

3.75589

75.5

2.97243

80.5

3.16928

85.5

3.36613

90.6

3.56298

95.5

3.75983

75.6

2.97637

80.6

3.17322

85.6

3.37007

90.6

3.56692

95.6

3.76377

75.7

2.98030

80.7

3.17715

85.7

3.37400

90.7

3.57085

95.7

3.76770

75.8

2.98424

80.8

3.18109

85.8

3.37794

90.8

3.57479

95.8

3.77164

75.9

2.98818

80.9

3.18503

85.9

3.38188

90.9

3.57873

95.9

3.77558

76.0

2.99212

81.0

3.18897

86.0

3.38582

91.0

3.58267

96.0

3.77952

76.1

2.99605

81.1

3 . 19290

86.1

3.38975

91.1

3.58660

96.1

3.78345

76.2

2.99999

81.2

3.19684

86.2

3.39369

91.2

3.59054

96.2

3.78739

76.3

3.00393

81.3

3.20078

86.3

3.39763

91.3

3.59448

96.3

3.79133

76.4

3.00786

81.4

3.20471

86.4

3.40156

91.4

3.59841

96.4

3.79526

76.5

3.01180

81.5

3.20865

86.5

3.40550

91.5

3.60235

96.5

3.79920

76.6

3.01574

81.6

3.21259

86.6

3.40944

91.6

3.60629

96.6

3.80314

76.7

3 01967

81.7

3.21652

86.7

3.41337

91.7

3.61022

96.7

3.80707

76.8

3.02361

81.8

3.22046

86.8

3.41731

91.8

3.61416

96.8

3.81101

76.9

3.02755

81.9

3.22440

86.9

3.42125

91.9

3.61810

96.9

3.81495

77.0

3.03149

82.0

3.22834

87.0

3.42519

92.0

3.62204

97.0

3.81889

77.1

3.03542

82.1

3.23227

87.1

3 42912

92.1

3.62597

97.1

3.82282

77.2

3.03936

82.2

3.23621

87.2

3.43306

92.2

3.62991

97.2

3.82676

77.3

3.04330

52.3

3.24015

87.3

3.43700

92.3

3.63385

97.3

3.83070

77.4

3.04723

82.4

3.24408

87.4

3.44093

92.4

3.63778

97.4

3.83463

77.5

3.05117

82.5

3.24802

87.5

3.44487

92.5

3.64172

97 5

3.83857

77.6

3.05511

82.6

3.25196

87.6

3.44881

92 6

3.64566

97.6

3.84251

77.7

3.05904

82.7

3.25589

87.7

3.45274

92.7

3.64959

97.7

3.84644

77.8

3.06298

82.8

3.25983

87.8

3.45668

92.8

3.65353

97.8

3.85038

77.9

3.06692

82.9

3.26377

87.9

3.46062

92.9

3.65747

97.9

3.85432

78.0

3.07086

83.0

3.26771

88.0

3.46456

93.0

3.66141

98.0

3.85826

78.1

3.07479

83.1

3.27164

88.1

3.46849

93.1

3.66534

98.1

3.86219

78.2

3.07873

83.2

3.27558

88.2

3.47243

93 2

3.66928

98.2

3.86613

78.3

3.08267

83.3

3.27952

88.3

3.47637

93.3

3.67322

98.3

3.87007

78.4

3.08660

83.4

3.28345

88.4

3.48030

93.4

3.67715

98.4

3.87400

78.5

3.09054

83.5

3.28739

88.5

3.48424

93.5

3.68109

98.5

3.87794

78.6

3.09448

83.6

3.29133

88 6

3.48818

93.6

3.68503

98.6

3.88188

78.7

3.09841

83.7

3.29526

88.7

3.49211

93.7

3.68896

98.7

3.88581

78.8

3.10235

83.8

3.29920

88.8

3.49605

93.8

3.69290

98.8

3.88975

78.9

3.10629

83.9

3.30314

88.9

3.49999

93.9

3.69684

98.9

3.89369

79.0

3.11023

84.0

3.30708

89.0

3.50393

94.0

3.70078

99.0

3.89763

79.1

3.11416

84.1

3.31101

89.1

3.50786

94.1

3.70471

99.1

3.90166

79 2

3.11810

84.2

3.31495

89.2

3.51180

94.2

3.70865

99.2

3.90660

79.3

3.12204

84.3

3.31889

89.3

3.51674

94.3

3.71259

99.3

3.90944

79.4

3.12597

84.4

3.32282

89.4

3.51967

94.4

3.71652

99.4

3.91337

79.5

3 . 12991

84.5

3.32676

89.5

3.52361

94.5

3.72046

99.5

3.91731

79.6

3.13385

84.6

3.33070

89.6

3.52755

94.6

3.72440

99.6

3.92126

79.7

3.13778

84.7

3.33463

89.7

3.53148

94.7

3.72833

99.7

3.92618

79.8

3.14172

84.8

3.33857

89.8

3.53542

94.8

3.73227

99.8

3.92912

79.9

3.14566

84.9

3.34251

89.9

3.53936

94.9

3.73621

99.9

3.93306

80

3.14960

85.0

3.34645

90.0

3 54330

95.0

3.74015

100

3.93700

178

ELEMENTS OF MACHINE WORK.

374. TABLE OF FREEZINO, MELTINO, AND BOILINO TEMPERATURES OF METALS AND COMMON SUBSTANCES.

From Standard Authorities. (-) - below 0.

Fahrenheit (F.)

Greatest natural cold

Mercury freezes

Snow and salt melts

Human blood freezes

Sea water freezes

Water freezes

Heat of human blood

For fusing metal, 25 parts lead, 25 parts tin,

50 parts bismuth, 250 parts mercury

Highest natural temperature

Gutta-percha softens

Alcohol boils

Water boils

Milk boils

Sulphur melts

Saturated brine boils

Gutta-percha vxilcanizes

Common solder (tin 1, lead 1)

Steam at 80 lbs

Steam at 100 lbs

Wood bums

Fine solder melts (blowpipe) (tin 2, lead 1)

Plumbers' solder (tin 1, lead 2)

Fusible plugs melt

Tin melts

Bismuth melts

Dividing line between mercury thermometer and

pyrometer

Mercury boils

Zinc melts

Heat of common fire

Charcoal bums

Antimony melts

Magnesium melts

Aluminum melts

Bronze melts

Silver melts

Brazing solder (hard solder) (copper 1, zinc 1) . . . .

Glass melts

Brass casting melts

Brass rod (rolled brass) melts

Gold melts

-94° -39

26

28 32 98.8

(C.)

-TO**

-39

-18

- 3

- 2

36

113

45

117

47

145

63

173

78

212

100

213

101

272

120

226

108

293

145

370-466

188-241

324

162

338

170

340

171

360

182

475

246

445

230

449

232

517

269

675

357

621

327

675

357

787

419

790

421

800

427

1166

630

1171

633

1213

657

1652

900

1751

955

1800

983

1832

1000

1681

916

1706

930

1947

1064

FREEZING, MELTING AND BOILING TEMPERATURES. 179

TABLE OF FREEZING, MELTING, AND BOILING TEMPERATURES OF METALS AND COMMON SUBSTANCES.

Concluded.

Copper melts

Cast iron (white pig) melts Cast iron (gray pig) melts . Steel (ferro tungsen) melts Emery wheels are vitrified.

Hard steel melts

Mild steel melts

Wrought iron melts

Nickel melts

Iron (pure) melts

Platinum melts

Manganese melts ,

Fire-brick melts

Carborundum produced . . . Alundum produced

Fahrenheit.

(F.)

(C.)

1949-1983

1065-1084

1922-2075

1050-1136

2012-2786

1100-1530

2240-2280

1226-124S

3000

164S

2570

1410

2462-2552

1350-1400

2700-2920

1482-1604

2703

1484

2912

1600

3236

1780

3452

1900

4000-5000

2204-2760

7000

3870

7000

3870

375. Cleaning castings. — Tumbling barrels or mills, also called rumblers, have largely superseded the pickling method of removing sand, scale, and cores from all kinds of castings.

The castings are put in the tumbling barrel or mill with some smaller castings, and star shot (iron), and are cleaned by their rolling and rubbing action as the barrel is revolved by power. The gates, sprues, risers and fins on the castings are removed by hand or by pneuT:iatic chipping. Steel castings are usually cleaned with a sand blast, and the gates, sprues, risers and fins are removed by drilling and planing.

Pickle for iron castings. - — Iron castings may be immersed for a short time in a solution of one part sulphuric acid and from two to three parts water, to soften and loosen the sand and scale. See Tumbling Barrel.

Cleaning brass, composition, bronze and copper castings, etc. — These castings do not always need tumbling or pickling as they may be cleaned by brushing and the cores removed by dipping while hot, in cold running water.

Aluminium castings are cleaned by brushing.

INDEX.

A

Page

Abrasives, manufactured 71

natural 71, 72

Acid solutions for etching 171

Acid, nitric 171

pyroligneous 171

sulphuric 179

Air blast for hardening high-speed

steel tools 01

Alining and leveling shafting, line

and level method of 166, 167

Alining and leveling shafting, transit

method of 168, 169

Alining pulleys 158, 159

Alloys 6, 7

Aluminium ) •

Aluminum )

Aliuuinium bronze 7

castings 7, 8

pipe and fittings 112

Aluminium castings, cleaning 179

Alundum 71

Annealed iron castings 76

steel castings 5

Annealed steel bars, commercial 75

Annealing brass 76

bronze 76

carbon steel 75, 79

case-hardened work 96

copper 76

high-speed steel 91

Annealing, water 75

Asbestos joint runner Ill, 112

washers 112, 113

Assembly drawings 9

Automatic center punch 23, 24

B

Babbitt bearings, scraping 70, 71

metal 7

Babbitting bearings 151, 152

Balancing pulleys 165, 166

Barium chloride for heating finished

high-speed steel tools 93, 94

Barrels, timibling 179

Page

Bastard files 47-52, 58, 59

Baths, brine 78

cleansing 79

mercury 78, 79

oil 78

special 79

water 78, 79

Bearings, Babbitting 151, 152

scraping bronze 70, 71

Babbitt 70, 71

Bedding to mark work for scraping

or filing 70

Belt clamps 161

dressing 163

hooks 162

punches 159

Belt lacing, coil wire 162

rawhide 159

Belting, cotton 155

leather 155, 156

rubber 155,156

Belts, cementing or gluing 162, 163

cross 157, 158

endless 162, 163

joining ends of 159-163

lacing 159-162

length of cross 157, 158

open 156, 157

open 156, 157

quarter-turn and twisted . . . 158, 159

slip of 155

Bench surface gages 22, 23

Bessemer steel 4

wire 6

Block-tin pipe 112

Blowpipes for brazing 148-150

Blow holes in pipe fittings and castings, plugging 172

Blue prints 13

Bluing revolvers 171

steel or iron light or dark 171

Bone for case-hardening 95, 96

Borax for brazing 148

Brass 6, 7

181

182

INDEX.

Page Braae and copper aeamless tubes in

iron pipe siies 118

Brass tubing 10&-111

Brass, annealing 76

files for 52. 63

soldering 146-148

Brass and bronse castings, cleaning. 170 Brass pipe and fittings, iron pipe

sixes 109, 110

Brass pipe and fittings, plumbers'

siies 109, 110

Braced tubing 110

Braced work, pickle for 151

Bracing 148-161

automobile parts 148-150

cast iron 150, 151

forges 148-150

rocker arm 148, 149

solder 148

with hand blowpipe 148, 140

portable blowpipe. . . 150, 151

spelter 148-151

stationary blowpipe. 140, 150

Bracing, blowpipes for 148-150

flux for 148

Breaks on drawings 11

Breast drilling machines 144

Briggs' Standard pipe measurements 115, 116

Brine baths 78

Bronze 6, 7

castings 7

pipe or tubes 109

Bronce, aluminium 7

manganese 7

phosphor 7

to anneal 76

Tobin 7

Browning gunbarrels 171, 172

steel and iron 171, 172

C

Calipers, inside 10

keyhole 10

outside 10

Cape chisel 35

Carbon 4

steel 4, 5, 6

wire 6

Carbon steel, annealing 75, 70

commercial annealed ... 75

hardening 75-90

tempering 75-00

Carborundum 71

Page

Card, file 53

Case-hardened work, annealing 06

cleaning 06

rehardening 06

Case-hardening 04-06

by carbonizing gas . . 04, 96

cast iron 172

machine parts 04-06

with bone 05, 06

colors 06

cyanide of potassium 04, 05

prussiate of potash 04, 05

without colors 05

Cast iron 3

pipe Ill, 112

Cast iron, to braze 150, 151

Cast-iron straight edges, standard

scraped 70

Castings, aluminium 7, 8

bronze 7

cleaning 170

composition 6

iron 3, 5

malleable iron 5

pickle for 170

snagging 32,170

steel 5

steel 5

Cement, litharge 113

pipe joint 100

rust joint or special 172

Cementing or gluing belts 162, 163

Center chisel 37

punch 22, 80-82

square 20

Center punch, automatic 23, 24

Chain drive 155

Chalk 17

Charcoal 82

Chart of brass pipe and tubing tools . . 130

cocks 123

driven and bored-well fittings 123

gas fittings! 123

nickel-plated fittings 123

railing fittings 123

tools for nickel-plated tubing 130

valves 123

Charts of pipe fittings 110, 123

pipe tools 127, 130

Check system for tool room 2

INDEX.

188

Page

Chip, finish 32

rough 32

Chipping 2&-3fl

hammers 30, 31

Chipping, correct position for 33

lubricant for 34

pneumatic 30

Chipping plane surfaces, schedule of

operations for 38

Chisels, cape 35

center 37

cold 31-37

diamond-point 37

flat 31

grinding cold 32, 44, 45

hardening and tempering 80-82

improved 31

large round-nose 36

method of using 32-36

oil-groove 37

side 37

small round-nose 36

Chloride for heating finished tools,

barium 93, M

Chrome steel 5

Clamps, belt 161

Clay to prevent hardening 76

Cleansing baths 70

Coal furnaces 06

Coarse-cut files 47, 48

Cocks ..123, 124

Coil wire belt lacing 162

Coils and bends, pipe 137

Cold chisels 31-37, 80-82

Cold-rolled shafting 5, 163

steel and wrought iron. . . 5, 6

Cold saw cutting-off machine 105

Color test for tempering 76, 77

Color, identifying pipe lines by 118

Combination square 20

Composition castings 6

Composition and copper castings,

cleaning 170

Conduits or tubes, electric 107

Cooling baths for hardening steel .... 78

tanks 78, 80-87, 02-06

Copper 6

pipe tubing and fittings .. .100, 110

wire 7

Copper, to anneal 76

to harden .' 6

Copper sulphate, use of 17, 18

Corundum 71

Crayon (soapstone), metal workers. . 142 Crocus 72

Page

Cross belts 167, 158

Cross belts, length of 157, 158

Crown and straight-face pulteys 154

Crude oil furnaces 87

Cut, finishing 32

roughing 32

Cuts of files 46-48

Cutter, pipe 127-131, 134, 135

to harden and temper highspeed steel 02

Cutters, wire 27, 28

Cutting-off attachment for pipe die

stock 127, 128

Cutting-off machine, electric drive. 104, 105

metal saw 105

Cutting off pipe, hand method of. 134, 135 Cyanide of potassium 04, 05

Depth gages 21

Detail drawings

Diamond-point chisel 37

Diamond-point tool, hardening 82, 83

tempering 82, 83

Diamond tool for truing emery wheel 43 Die stocks, pipe .... 126-128, 130, 132, 133

filing 63, 64

Dies, pipe.. 108. 426, 127, 130-133. 138, 130 plumbers' sises or fine thread

pipe 130, 131

Dimensions on drawings 13

Dividers 10

Double-cut files 46, 47

Double-extra strong wrought-iron

pipe, table of dimensions of 117

Draw-filing 62

Drawings, assembly

breaks on 11, 12

detail

dimension-limit system ... 15

dimensions on 13

isometric 8,

lines on 10

mechanical 0-15

order of reading working. . 14

' pencil sketches ' 13, 14

perspective 8

scale of 13

schedule-of-operations . ... 13

section lining on 11

sections on 10, 11

table of abbreviations on . 12 working 0-15

184

INDEX.

Page

Dresser, emery wheel 42

Drilling machines, breast 144

ratchet 145

Driven and bored well-fittings.chart of 123 Drop forgings 5

[E

Electric conduits or tubes 107

Electric furnaces for heating to harden 78

Emery 71

or grinding wheels 40-43

paper 72

wheel dresser 42

Emery, flour of 72

number of 72

Emery cloth, order of applying different grades of 73

Emery wheel, diamond tool for truing 43

to true 42, 43

Emery wheels, to calculate speed of 41 Equipment for manufacturing machines 2

Equipment for teaching machine construction 2

Etching names and figures on hardened steel , 171

Etching, acid solutions for 171

Extra strong wrought-iron pipe, table

of dimensions of 117

F

Fahrenheit 89. 178, 179

Fiber washers 113

File card 53

test for hardness 76

temper 77

File, bent riffler 52

blunt 49

finish 58

parts of 48

round 52

safe edge 48, 60, 61

round edge 61

saw 51

square 50

to bend 59

File holder, surface 60

Filed surfaces, testing flatness of . . . . 56 testing squareness of . . 57

Filing 46-64

a die 63, 64

concave surfaces 61, 62

long holes 61, 62

machine 63. 64

Page

Filingwire 63

Filing, correct position for 54-56

draw 62

height of work for 53, 54

removing large amount of

stock by 60

rough 58

to lay out work for 57-59

Filing plane surfaces, schedule of

operations for 57-59

Files for brass 52. 53

Files, bastard 47-52, 58, 59

care of 53

classification of hand 48

coarse-cut 47, 48

coarse to fine grades of 47

cuts of 46-48

double-cut 46, 47

extra fine 47

flat 50

half-round. . .% 52, 60-62

hand 49

hand-cut 64,65

handles for 53

kni/e-edge 51

large 48

lubricant for 53

machine-cut 65

• miU 51

names of parts of 48

pillar 50

pinning of 53

rasp-cut 46, 47, 52

shapes of 46

single-cut 46. 51

slim 49

Swiss pattern 47

taper 48, 49, 51

three-square 51

to harden 65

uses of safe-edge 48, 60, 61

uses of different classes of. . . . 48

warding 50

Finish chip 32

file 58

Finishing cut 32

Fins 179

Fire brick for brazing 148-150

Fittings for driven and bored wells 123, 126 galvanised wrought-iron

or steel pipe 107

gas pipe 123, 125

INDEX.

185

Page Fittings for nickel-plated tubing. . . 123, 124

railings ...123, 125

Fittings, aluminium 112

malleable iron 118. 119-126

measuring length of pipe. . . 136

pipe 107-126

right and left pipe,

108, 119-121, 136. 137 tables of pipe. . . 120-122, 124-126

tin-lined pipe 107, 119, 120

Flange pipe joints, making up. ... Ill, 113

Flange wrench 129, 130

Flat files 60

scrapers 66-68

Flour of emery 72

Flux for brazing 148

heating to harden 78

soldering 146

Forges for bracing 148-150

hardening and tempering,

80, 82, 86

Forging high-speed steel tools 91

Forgings, drop 5

hand 6

Formulas for speeds of pulleys. ... 154, 156

Furnaces, coal 95

crude oil 87

electric 78

muffle-gas 85, 93

oil-tempering gas 88, 90

soft-metal 86

Furnaces for hardening and tempering 85-87. 92, 93, 95

G

Gages, bench surface 22, 23

depth 21

scratch 21

universal surface 23

Galvanised steel and wrought-iron ... 4 steel and wrought-iron

pipe and fittings 107

Gas, case-hardening with 94, 96

Gas fittings 123, 125

Gas furnaces for heating to harden,

78. 85. 86. 92-94 Gaskets for unions, piston rods, cylinders, etc 112, 113

Gates 179

Gears, to calculate speed of 164, 165

train of 164

Gluing or cementing belts 162, 163

Gold, to solder 148

Page

Grades of files, coarse to fine 47

Graphite I08

Grinders, wet tool 40, 42, 43

Grinding cold chisels 32, 44, 45

high-speed steel tools 92

tools 44, 45

Grinding wheels, emery 40-43

Grindstone 43, 44

Grindstone, truing 44

Guide pulleys 159

Gun barrels, browning 171

Gun metal 7

H

Hack saw, hand 102

power 102, 103

Half-round files 52, 60-62

rasp 47. 52

Hammer, method of using 33, 34

pneumatic 39

Hammers, chipping 30, 31, 33

Hand blowpipe 148, 149

Hand-cut files 64. 65

Hand-smooth files 47, 49

Hand drilling machines 144, 145

files 49

Handles for files 53

Hangers, spacing of. 66

Hard soldering 148

Harden, flux for heating to 78

forge fire for heating to 77, 80

muffle for heating to 77, 78

Hardness, file test for 76

scleroscope scale of 99

scleroscope test for 98

Hardening a tap 85, 93, 94

and tempering chisels. . . . 80-82 and tempering finished

tools 85-90, 93, 94

and tempering high-speed

steel removable cutter . . 92 and tempering high-speed

steel tools 90-94

and tempering springs. . .85, 89

carbon steel 75-90

carbon steel milling

cutter 87

diamond-point tool 82, 83

files 65

high-speed steel milling

cutter 93

high-speed steel tap in

barium chloride 93, 94

mandrel 86. 87

186

INDEX.

Page

Hardening portion of articles 76

side tools 84, 85

to proper degree without

tempering 90

unfinished tools 80-85

with electric furnace 78

copper 6

Hardening steel, cooling baths for. . .78, 79 Hardened and tempered tools,

straightening 97, 98

Hematite 3

High-speed steel 90-94

High-speed steel, annealing 92-94

hardening 91

tempering 92-94

High-speed steel tools, air blast for

hardening 91

High-speed steel tools, hardening and

tempering 90-94

High-speed steel tools, forging 91

grinding 92

History of machine tools 1, 2

Holes, testing depth of 21

Holes in pipe-fittings and castings,

plugging 172

I

Inches, table of millimeters with

equivalents in 174-177

Inches with equivalents in millimeters, table of 1 73

Indicator, speed 163, 164

test 141, 142

Inside calipers 19

Iron, cast 3

cold-drawn wrought 6

cold-rolled wrought 5

galvanized 4

ores of 3

pig 3

scrap 3

wrought 3

Iron castings 3, 5

Iron castings, annealed 76

malleable 5

pickle for 179

Isometric drawing 8, 9

J

Jaws, soft vise 30, 56, 68, 62

Joining ends ol belts 159-163

Joint, lock nut pipe 119, 122

Page

Joint runner, asbestos Ill, 112

Joints, right and left pipe 136, 137

K

Keyhole calipers « 19

Key-seating rule 20, 21

Key ways, laying out 20, 21

Knife-edge files 51

Laboratories for teaching machine

construction 2

Lacing belts 169-162

Lard oU 108

Lathe and planer tools, to harden and

temper 82-85, 90-92

Laying out work 17-24

float files 52

hardening 78, 86

hardening gas furnace 86

lined fittings 107, 1 19, 120

lined pipe 107

pipe 112

red 109

white 109

Leather belting 156, 166

washers t...^.ll2, 113

Length of belts 166, 167

Level 27

Limonite 3

Line shafting, speed of 153

Lining pulleys. See Alining pulleys, shafting. See Alining and leveling shafting.

Litharge 113

Lubricant for chipping 34

filing 53

Lubricants for threading pipe 108, 109

M

Machine-cut files 65

Machine filing 63, 64

steel 4

Machine, breast drilling 144

ratchet drilling 145

Machine construction, equipment for

teaching. . . 2 laboratories for

teaching. ... 2

Machine tools, history of 1

origin of 1

INDEX.

187

Page

Machine tools, power for driving 153

Machines, hand-drilling 144, 145

Machinists' vise 29, 33, 54

Magnetite 3

Malleable pipe fittings 108, 119-126

iron castings 5

Mandrel, hardening 86, 87

tempering , ... 86, 87

Manganese bronze 7

Manufacturing machines, equipment

for 2

Marking for scraping 68

Materials for machines and tools .... 3-8 Measurements, English system of

linear 16

Measurements, Metric system of

linear 16, 17

Mechanical drawing 8-15

Mercury baths 78, 79

Metal packings 112, 113

saw cutting-off machine 105

worker's crayon (soapstone) . . 142

Metal, Babbitt 7

gun 7

Metric system of linear measurements 16, 17

Mica 3

Mill files 51

Milling cutters, hardening and tempering carbon steel 87-90

hardening and tempering high-speed steel 93 scleroscope for testing

hardness of 98-101

Millimeters, table of inches with

equivalents in 173

Millimeters with equivalents in

inches, table of ^. . 174-177

Molybdenunj 90

Monkey wrenches 24, 25

Monkey wrenches, pipe attachment

for 25

Muffle for heating to harden 77, 78

gas furnaces 85, 93

Music wire 6

N

Nickel '. ... 5

steel 5

tubes 114, 115

Nickel-plated fittings 123, 124

tubing tools 130, 132

Nickel-plated tubes, seamless Ill

Nippers or wire cutters 27, 28

Page

Nitric acid 171

Nuts, tightening 24, 25

O

Oakum 112, 113

Oa baths 78

stones 66, 67

stoning scrapers 66. 67

tempering 88-94

gas furnaces 88, 90

Oil-groove chisels 37

Oil, hardening and tempering highspeed steel tools in 92-94

Open belts 156, 167

Open-hearth steel 4

Ores of iron 3

Originating standard straightedges. . 70

surface plates . . 70

Origin of machine tools 1

Orthographic projection 9

Outside calipers 19

Oxidizing solutions for coloring steel and iron 171. 172

P

Pack hardening. See Case-hardening

Packing, sheet rubber 112

Packings for unions, piston rods, cylinder heads, etc 112, 113

Packings, metal 112, 113

Peening sheet metal 142

Perspective drawing 8

Phosphor bronze 7

Phosphorus 3

Piano wire 6

Pickle for brazed work 161

iron castings 179

Pig iron 3

Pillar files 50

Pinning of files 63

Pipe attachment for monkey wrench . 26

coils and bends 137

cutter 127-131, 134, 136

die stocks 12&-128, 130, 132, 133

dies. 108, 126. 127. 130-133, 138. 139

Pipe fittings 107-126

for hydraulic pressure. See

Double-extra strong pipe, taps... 108, 110, 127. 128. 130, 132

tools 12&-136

vises 127.1 9 131, 133, 134

188

INDEX.

Page

Pipe, aluminhim 112

ammonia. See Wrought-iron pipe extra strong.

block tin 112

bnws, copper and bronce, seamlees drawn 109-111

brine. <See Wrought-iron pipe.

oast-iron Ill, 112

oast-iron, drain or soil Ill, 112

compressed air 106, 107

copper 109. 110

double-extra strong 106, 117

extra strong 106. 117

galvanised steel and wrought-iron 107

gas 106, 107

gasoline 106, 107

hand method of cutting off. . 134, 135

hot water 107, 109-112

iron-size brass 110

plimibers' sises brass 109-1 1 1

copper 109, 110

repairing splits in 172

seamless lead or block tin ... . 112

tin-lined 107

water 106-112

wrought-iron 106, 107, 115, 116

Pipe and pipe fittings, aluminium. . . 112 Pipe and tubing threads, taper per

foot of 108, 110, 132

Pipe equivalents, table of 113

Pipe fitting, measuring length of . . . . 136

problem m 135-137

Pipe fittings, regular 108. 119-126

right and left,

108. 119-121, 136, 137

Pipe Joint cement 109

Pipe joint connections, right and left

136, 137

tin 112

Pipe joints by hand, making up

screwed 127, 129-139

by power, making up

large 139, 140

Pipe lines by color, to identify 118

Pipe sizes, tables of Briggs' Standard 115, 116

standard 106, 115, 116

steel 106, 115, 116

tables of dimensions of ^ extra and double-extra strong steel and wrought-iron 117

Page

hand 138, 139

power 139, 140

Pipe wrenches. StiUson. . . . 127, ' 129, 134 Planer tools, to harden and temper,

82-86, 90-92

Platinum 8

Platinum, soldering 148

Pliers 27

Plumbago. See Graphite and Black lead.

Plumb bob, mercury 26, 27

Plmnbers' sizes or fine thread pipe

tools 130, 131

Plumbers' sizes, brass pipe or tubing 109-1 1 1 taps and dies. 110, 130, 131

Pneumatic hammer 39

curved work 74

flat surfaces 73^

work before tempering, 82-87

Polishing, abrasives for 71

lubricant for 73

Porcelain 3

Portable blowpipe 150, 151

Potassimn cyanide for case-hardening, 94, 95

Power for driving machine tools 153

hack saw 102, 103

transmission 153-170

I'ress, straightening 97, 142

Pressed steel pulleys. 153

Projection, orthographic 9

Prussiate of potash 94, 95

Pulleys 153-155

Pulleys, alining 158, 159

balancmg 165, 166

calculating the size of . ... 154, 155

cast-iron 153, 154

crown and straight-face. ... 154

guide '. • 159

pressed steel 153

solid 153, 154

speed of 154, 155

split 153, 154

wood 153

Punch, center 22

Psrroligneous acid. 171

Pyrometer for measuring high temperatures 93, 94

Q Quarter-turn and twisted belts, .... 158, 159

INDEX.

189

R

Page

Railing fittings 123, 125

Rasp-cut files 46, 47, 52

Rasp, half-round 47, 52

Ratchet drilling machine 145

Rawhide belt lacing 150

Revolvers, bluing 171

Rifflers, bent 52

Right and left pipe Joints, making

up 136, 137

Risers 179

Rivetmg 143

crank pin 143

Riveting, flush 143

Rivets, copper 143

steel and iron 143

Rope drive 155

Rottenstone 72

Rough and finish pipe thread 133

chip 32

file 58

Roughing cut 32

Round files 52, 61

Round-nose chisels 36, .37

Rubber belting 155

washers 112, 113

Rubber packing, sheet 112

Rule, key-seating 20, 21

standard steel 18, 19

two-foot 18

Rumblers 179

Rust-joint or special cement 171

S

Safe-edge files, uses of 48, 60, 61

Sand blast 179

Sand, tempering in 77

Sand paper, numbered sizes of 72

Saw file 51

Sawing metal 102, 103. 105

Scale of drawing 13

Schedule-of -operations-drawings 13

Schedule of operations for alining and

leveling shafting, line and level

method 166, 167

Schedule of operations for alining and

leveling shafting, transit method, 168, 169 Schedule of operations for alining 'pulleys for a quarter-turn belt. . 158, 159 Schedule of operations for Babbiting

an engine bearing 151, 152

Schedule of operations for brazing cast

iron 150, 151

Page Schedule of operations for brazing

with hand blowpipes 148, 149

Schedule of operations for brazing

with stationary blowpipe 149, 150

Schedule of operations for chipping

plane surfaces 38

Schedule of operations for cutting

off pipe, hand method 134, 135

Schedule of operations for filing

plane surfaces 57-59

Schedule of operations for hand pipe

Schedule of operations for hardening

and tempering high-speed steel

cutter 92

Schedule of operations for hardening

and tempering high-speed steel mill- *

ing cutter 93

Schedule of operations for heating a

high-speed steel tap in barium

chloride , 93, 94

Schedule of operations for lacing large

belts 161

Schedule of operations for lacing small

and medium belts 159, 160

Schedule of operations for making

right and left pipe joint connections 136, 137

Schedule of operations for making up

a screwed pipe joint 134

Schedule of operations for measuring

hardness of milling cutter with

scleroscope 99, 100

Schedule of operations for problem in

pipe fitting 135, 136

Schedule of operations for scraping

flat surfaces 68, 69

Schedule of operations for soldering

brass 147, 148

Schedule of operations for straightening

hardened and tempered tools.... 97, 98 Schedule of operations for threading

pipe by hand 133

machine 138, 139

machine 139, 140

Schedule of operations for using a

breast drilling machine 144

Schedule of operations for using a

ratchet drilling machine 145

Schedule of operations for using a

speed indicator 163, 164

190

INDEX.

Page Scleroscope, testing hardness with . . 08-101

Scrap iron 3

Scrapers, flat 66-68

to sharpen 66. 67

half-round 71

Scraping Babbitt bearings 70, 71

bronxe bearings 70, 71

flat surfaces 68, 69

V-ways of a machine 70

without a standard 70

Scraping, marking for 68

ornamental 69

uses of 66

Scraping or filing, bedding to mark

work for 70

Scratch gages 21

Screwdriver 26

Scriber, forged 22

Section lining on drawings 11

Shafting 3, 5, 153

Shafting, cold-rolled 6, 163

line and level method of alining and leveling. . 166, 167

steel 5, 153

to straighten 141, 142

transit method of alining

and leveling 168, 169

wrought-iron 3, 5, 153

Sheet rubber packing 112

steel 4

Shop equipment for manufacturing

machines 2

Side chisels 37

Side tool, hardening 84, 85

tempering 84, 85

Silicon 3

Silver, soldering 148

Single-cut files 46, 51

Sketches 13, 14

Slip of belts 155

hand 49

Snagging castings 32, 179

Socket wrenches 26

Soft metal furnaces 86

Soil or drain pipe, cast-iron Ill, 112

Solder for brazing 148

Solder, hard 148

soft 146

Soldering 146-148

acid 146

brass 146-148

by sweating 147, 148

gold 148

platinum 148

Page

Soldering silver 148

with soldering-iron 146-148

Soldering, flux for 146

hard 148

Soldering-iron 146

Soldering-iron, tinning 146

Solid pulleys 153, 154

Solutions for coloring steel and iron,

oxidising 171

Solutions for etching, acid 171

Spanner wrenches 26

Speed indicator 163, 164

of emery wheels 41

line shafting 153

pulleys 154, 155

Spelter for braiing 148

Split pulleys 153, 154

Splits in pipes, repairing 172

Springs, to harden and temper 85, 89

Sprocket wheels 155

Sprues 179

Square, center 20

combination 20

Square files 50

Squares, try 56, 57

Steam pipe 106, 107, 109-111

Standard pipe 106, 115, 116

steel rules 18, 19

straight edges 20, 70

surface plates 67, 68

Standards of linear measurements. . . 16, 17

Star shot 179

Stationary blowpipe 149, 150

Steel 4, 5, 6

Steel and iron rivets , 143

castings 5

pipe 106, 115,116

shafting 5, 153

wire 6

Steel, Bessemer 4

carbon 4, 5, 6

chrome 5

cold-drawn 6

cooling baths for hardening ... 78, 79 etching names and figures on

hardened 171

galvanized 4

.high-speed 90-94

machine 4

nickel ^ 5

open-hearth 4

percentage of carbon in 4,5

sheet 4

to anneal carbon 75, 79

tool. See Carbon steel

/

INDEX.

191

Page

Steel and iron, browning 171, 172

Steel and iron light or dark, bluing. 171

and wrought-iron, cold-rolled . . 5, 6

pulleys, pressed 153

tubes, seamless drawn 113, 114

Stillson pipe wrenches 127, 129, 134

Stock. See Materials

room 2

Stoning scrapers, oil 66, 67

Straight edge, standard steel 20

Straight edges, standard scraped .... 70

cast-iron 70

to originate 70

Straightening bars of steel 141, 142

hardened and tempered

tools 97, 98

preis 97, 142

work by peening 142

Straightening^ shafts in a lathe, testing

and 141, 142

Sulphate of copper 17, 18

Sulphur 3

Sulphuric acid 179

Surface file holder 60

Surface plates, standard 67

to originate 70

Surfaces, filing large 60

Sweating to solder 147, 148

Swiss pattern files 47

T

Table of abbreviations on drawings. . 12 driven and bored well fittings 126 freezing, melting and boiling

temperatures of metals

and common substances,

178, 179

gas fittings 125

inches with equivalents in

millimeters 173

millimeters with equivalents

in inches 174-177

pipe equivalents 113

pipe tools 131

plumbers' sizes taps and

dies 110

railing fittings 125

seamless drawn brass and

copper tubes in iron pipe

sizes 118

Page Table of temperatures and colors for

tempering 89

valves and cocks 124

Tables of Briggs' Standard pipe

measurement 115, 116

dimensions of extra and double extra strong wrought-iron pipe .... 117 pipe fittings. 120-122, 124-126 pipe tools,

126, 128, 129, 131, 132

Tallow 109

Tanks, cooling 78, 80-87, 92-95

Taper files 48, 49, 51

Taps, hardening 85, 93, 94

pipe 108. 110. 127, 128, 130, 132

tempering 86, 93, 94

Teaching machine construction,

equipment for 2

Temper, file test for 77

thermometer test for 77

Temperatures of metals and common substances, table of freezing, melting and boiling 178, 179

Tempering carbon steel 75-90

milling cutter 87

diamond-point tool 82, 83

finished tools,

76, 77, 86-88, 90, 93, 94

high-speed steel 92-94

milling cutter, 93 in charcoal or coke flame. 82

in oil 88-94

in sand 77

mandrel 86,87

side tool 84, 85

table of temperatures and

colors 89

tap 86, 93, 94

unfinished tools. . . 76, 77, 80-85

Tempering, color test for 76, 77

Test indicator 141, 142

Testing flatness of filed surfaces 56

squareness of filed surfaces . . 57

Testing hardness, scleroscope for 99

Thermometer for measuring low

temperatures .... 88, 90 test for temper. . 77, 88-90

Thread, rough and finish pif>e 133

with hand pipe threading machine 138, 139

with power pipe threading machine 139, 140

192

INDEX.

Page

Three-flquare files 51

Tin 7

Tin-tined fittings 107, 110, 120

pipe 107

Tin (bloek) pipe, seamless 112

Tinning soldering-iron 146

Tobin bronce 7

Tool steel. See Carbon steel.

Tool grinders, wet 40, 42, 43

grinding 44, 45

room 2

Tool room, check system for 2

Tools for nickel-plated tubing 130, 132

Tools, charts of pipe 127, 130

forging high-speed steel 91

grinding 44, 45

guide principle in hand 29

hardening and tempering lathe

and planer 82-85, 90-95

materials for 3-8

pipe 130, 131

straightening hardened and

tempered 97, 98

tempering finished,

76, 77, 86-88, 90, 93, 94 unfinished. . 76, 77, 80-85 Tools for brass pipe and tubing,

plumbers' sizes of 130, 131

Transmission, power 153, 170

Truing emery wheel 42, 43

grindstone 44

Try squares 56, 57

Tubing, brazed 110

nickel 114, 115

seamless drawn steel 1 13, 114

Tubing threads, taper of 110, 111

tools, nickel-plated 130, 132

Tubes, brass, copper and bronze seamless 109-111

nickel-plated seamless Ill

Tubes of brass and copper in iron pipe

sizes, seamless 118

Tumbling barrels 179

Tungsten 90

U Universal surface gages 23

Page

Valves 123, 124

steel 5

forgings 5

castings 5

Vaseline 86, 171

Vise, machinists' 29, 33, 54

Vises, height of machinists' 30

pipe 127, 129-131, 133, 134

soft jaws for 30, 55, 58, 62

V-ways of a machine, scraping 70

W

Warding files 50

Washers, fiber, leather, asbestos, rubber and metal 112, 113

Water annealing 75

pipe 106-112

Well fittings, driven or bored 123, 126

Wire belt lacing 162

cutters 27, 28

Wire, Bessemer steel 6

carbon steel 6

copper 7

filing 63

music 6

Wood in machine construction 8

pulleys 153

Work, laying out 17-24

Working drawings 8-15

Wrench, flange 129, 130

Wrenches, monkey 24, 25

pipe attachment for monkey 25

socket 26

spanner 26

Stillson pipe 127. 129, 134

Wrought iron 3

pipe 106. 107, 115, 116

shafting 3, 5, 153

Yard, Imperial.

16

Zinc.